AP Bio - Study Guide
1. A. Organismal Ecology - Concerned with how an organism’s structure, physiology, and behavior meet the challenges posed by the environment.
Population Ecology - Concentrates mainly on factors that affect how many individuals of a particular species live in an area.
Community Ecology - Deals with the whole array of interacting species in a community, specifically predation, competition, and disease, as well as abiotic factors.
Ecosystem Ecology - The emphasis is on energy flow and chemical cycling among the various biotic and abiotic components.
Landscape Ecology - Deals with the arrays of ecosystems and how they are arranged in a geographic region. Ecologists generally need to consider multiple factors and alternative hypothesis when attempting to explain patterns of distribution and abundance. In many cases, a species cannot complete its full life cycle if transplanted to a new area. This inability to survive and reproduce may be due to negative interactions with other organisms in the form of predation, parasitism, disease, or competition. The global distribution of organisms broadly reflects the influence of abiotic factors, such as regional differences in temperature, water, and sunlight. Four abiotic factors--temperature, water, sunglight, and wind--are the major components of climate, the prevailing weather conditions in a particular area. 4. Photic Zone - Where there is sufficient light for photosynthesis.
Aphotic Zone - Where little light penetrates
Benthic Zone - At the bottom of all aquatic biomes, the benthic zone is the substrate.
Pelagic Zone - Open water
Ethology - the scientific study of how animals behave, particularly in their natural environments. 2. Fixed Action Pattern - A sequence of unlearned behavioral acts that is essentially unchangeable and, once initiated, is usually carried to completion....