Essay questions (2)
1. Explain how the chemical composition of a mineral controls its crystal structure. 2. Some minerals contain economically important elements. If you were prospecting in the field, what tools would you carry to help you identify different minerals? Fill in the blank (18)
1. The three common ------ of matter with which we are most familiar in our everyday lives are solid, liquid, and gas. 2. --------- are homogeneous masses of material that can be separated from one another by a definable boundary. 3. Colloids that consist of microparticles or nanoparticles suspended in a gas (such as air) are called -----------. 4. An ------------ is the smallest individual particle that retains the distinctive properties of a given chemical element. 5. ----------- are atoms with the same atomic number and hence essentially the same chemical properties, but different mass numbers. 6. ------------- form when one or more kinds of anion combine chemically with one or more kinds of cation in a specific ratio. 7. A ------------ is the smallest unit that retains all the properties of a compound. 8. The term -----------is specifically applied to compounds consisting of carbon atoms that are joined to other carbon atoms by a strong type of bond called a covalent bond. 9. ------------- are long, chainlike polymers made of amino acids bonded together. 10. The ----------- of the Earth is a spherical mass composed largely of metallic iron, with smaller amounts of nickel and other elements. 11. The thick shell of dense, rocky matter that surrounds the Earth’s core is called the ------------. 12. Above the mantle lies the thinnest and outermost layer of the Earth, the ----------, which consists of rocky matter that is less dense than mantle rock. 13. Within the upper mantle, from 350 to about 100 km below the surface, is a region called the ----------- where the balance between temperature and pressure is such that rocks have little strength. 14. This hard outer layer, which includes the uppermost mantle and all of the crust, is called the -------------. 15. A mineral’s tendency to break in preferred directions along bright, reflective planar surfaces is called -----------. 16. The term ----------- refers to the relative resistance of a mineral to being scratched. 17. A ------------ is any naturally formed, nonliving, firm, coherent aggregate mass of solid matter that constitutes part of a planet (or asteroid, moon, or other related planetary object). 18. The product of rock weathering is a layer of broken-up, disintegrated rock matter called -----------. True/False (20)
1. Water and lava are both liquids.
2. It is not possible for materials to coexist in two different phases but in the same state (False). 3. Solid, liquid and gas are the only three states of matter . 4. An atom is the smallest individual particle that retains the distinctive properties of a given chemical element and cannot be split into smaller components. 5. Isotopes of an element have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons. 6. When sugar and water are mixed together to form a solution, no chemical change has occurred. 7. Organic compounds can only be produced by living organisms. 8. Lipids are a type of organic molecule and are also polymers. 9. Genes are regions of DNA coded for specific proteins that perform particular functions. 10. Some forms of carbohydrates cannot be digested by humans. 11. Earth is the only terrestrial planet within our solar system. 12. The inner-most core of the Earth is completely liquid. 13. Continental crust is less dense than oceanic crust.
14. There are transitions between solid and liquid within the Earth that occur without changes in composition . 15. Diamond is not an example of a mineral since it cannot be flaked apart . 16. Glass can be categorized as a...