Earth Science

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Climate: animation -audio •Climate is the average weather in an area across a span of time determined by the temperature and precipitation. •Latitude, wind patterns, geography and ocean currents are all factors that define climate. •Range from Tropical Desert, Tropical Rainforest, Temperate Desert, or Temperate Rainforest. GCMs – Computer models – study climate change video Warming. Part 4 - Consequences and Climate models.wmv
Three factors: human activity (carbon monoxide & other greenhouse gasses), natural external factors (sun, volcanoes), and sulfate aerosols. •Sulfate aerosols arise from fossil fuel combustion which has a cooling affect. •Water vapor is a powerful greenhouse gas.

Not all models agree on the outcomes of future climates. •A great concern is sea level rise due to melting glaciers, can cause coasts from Venice to California to be affected. Extreme Weather: thunderstorm video Thunderstorm Recipe.avi •Moisture, lift and instability are needed for a thunderstorm to form. •Clouds are created by the moisture. Cold front could provide the lift in order to condense. •Wind shear is a change in wind speed or direction with height that turn storms severe. •Thunderstorms with rotating updrafts are called super cells commonly producing tornadoes. animation – audio glencoe earth science/thunderstorm_stages_332.swf •Stages of thunderstorms:
Cumulus stage(no rain, mainly updrafts) , Mature stage(updrafts and downdrafts caused by rain), Dissipation stage (lingering downdrafts). •Thunderstorms consist of rain, winds, lightning, and thunder. •Air near surface must be warm and the atmosphere must be unstable in order to produce a thunderstorm. animation – audio – lightening glencoe earth science/how_lightnings_produced_335.swf •Friction between up and down drafts causes regions of air to have opposite charges. The process goes from stepped leader to return stroke and finally channel. hurricanes : animation – audio •Formation
1.Winds from different directions collide in a low pressure area. 2.The warm moist air rises increasing wind speed.
3.As water condenses releases energy and an area of low pressure forms in the middle (eye) animation video disk 1/How a hurricane is born - The Science Of Superstorms – BBC.wmv •Hurricanes are born in an easterly wave. Traveling west to the Atlantic Ocean. •Storms gather strength feeding from the moist warm air. disk 1/NASA Exploring Energy Hurricanes.avi •Energy in the hurricane comes from the warm water causing water vapor molecules to condense. •Aqua satellites provide information on clouds and infrared energy. •Upwelling is ocean circulation bringing cold deep water to the surface. tornadoes : animation – audio •Rotating column of air at high speeds making a funnel cloud. •Officially a tornado after has made contact with Earth’s surface. animation video Tornadoes...
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