earnings management

Topics: Balance sheet, Asset, Depreciation Pages: 31 (3917 words) Published: November 30, 2013
Part II: A Comparison of PRC and US GAAP
第二部分:中国企业会计准则与美国会计制度比较

• Similarities共同点
• Differences不同点

Hierarchy of PRC accounting
regulations中国企业会计制度的结构
Regulations on accounting and financial reporting
会计处理与财务报表编制的规范
Revise concepts in Basic
Accounting Standards for
Business Enterprises
(1993)企业基本会计制度
概念的更新

Specific accounting standards
明确的会计准则

ASBE
企业会计制度

Accounting systems for financial
institutions金融机构会计制度

Accounting systems for small business
enterprises小型企业会计制度

Guidance for various industries i.e, revenue, costing
不同行业会计制度指导(如:收入、成本等) Specific interpretation and
http://www.pwcglobal.com/cn response letter
具体解释和反馈信函

Similarities共同点

Basic Concepts and
Qualitative Characteristics
基本概念与性质特征
PRC中国企业会计制度
Validity, Accuracy, Completeness
and Timeliness合法,准确,完整,
及时
Consistency 一贯性
Accrual Basis of Accounting
权责发生制
Matching Principle配比原则
Going Concern Assumption
持续经营假设

US GAAP美国会计制度
Similar to PRC standards
与中国企业会计制度相似

Cash and Cash Equivalents
现金与现金等价物
PRC中国企业会计制度
Cash comprises cash on hand and
demand deposits.
货币资金包括现金和银行存款。
Cash equivalents are short-term,
highly liquid investments that are
readily convertible to known
amounts of cash and which are
subject to an insignificant risk of
changes in value.现金等价物指持有
的期限短、流动性强、易于转换为
已知金额的现金及价值变动风险很
小的投资。

US GAAP美国会计制度
Similar to PRC accounting
standards.
与中国企业会计制度相似。

Accounts Receivable and
Bad Debt Provision
应收帐款与坏帐准备
PRC中国企业会计制度
Carried at original invoiced
amount less an estimate made for
doubtful receivables.
应收帐款按实际发生额入帐,并对
应收帐款的回收可能性进行评估后
计提坏帐准备。

US GAAP美国会计制度
Similar to PRC accounting
regulations.
同中国企业会计制度相似。

Inventories存货

PRC中国企业会计制度
Carried at lower of cost and net
realizable value. Use of FIFO,
LIFO, weighted average method,
moving weighted average method
and specific identification method to
determine cost.
存货以成本与可变现净值孰低法入
帐,存货成本以先进先出法,后进
先出法,加权平均法,移动平均法
或个别计价法确定。

US GAAP美国会计制度
Similar to PRC accounting
regulations. In addition, the retail
method is allowed.
与中国企业会计制度相似,但也允
许使用零售价法计算存货成本,

Fixed Assets – Carrying Value
固定资产-现值
PRC中国企业会计制度

US GAAP美国会计制度

Tangible fixed assets are stated at
cost less accumulated depreciation.

Similar to PRC accounting
regulations.

固定资产以原值减去累计折旧后的
净值列示。

与中国企业会计制度相似。

Subsequent revaluations are
generally not allowed.
固定资产一般不允许按照重新估计
的价值入帐。

Subsequent revaluations are
prohibited.
不允许按重新估计的价值入帐。

Fixed Assets – Depreciation
固定资产-折旧
PRC中国企业会计制度
Based on facts, circumstances and
management judgement, enterprises can
determine the estimated useful lives and
salvage value of fixed assets.
企业根据固定资产的实际使用方式和性质
,环境及管理层的合理判断确定固定资产
的使用年限及残值。
Depreciation can be made based on the
straight-line method, physical use
depreciation method, sum-of-the-years’
digit method, double-declining balance
method, etc.
折旧方法可选择直线法、工作量法、年数
总和法或双倍余额递减法。

US GAAP美国会计制度
Similar to PRC accounting
regulations.
与中国企业会计制度相似。

Investment Property
投资性资产
PRC中国企业会计制度
Not addressed in existing
regulations.
现行制度中未对此加以规定。
Therefore, all fixed assets,
regardless of intention, are carried
at cost less accumulated
depreciation (subject to impairment
tests).
因此,所有的固定资产,无论使用
目的,均按成本减去累计折旧后的
净值列示(包括减值准备)。

US GAAP美国会计制度
Treated as other properties and
should be subject to depreciation and
impairment tests.
视为其他资产,计提折旧和减值准备


Interim Financial Reporting
中期财务报告
PRC中国企业会计制度
Not mandatory to prepare
interim financial statements but
must use standard if do prepare.
中期财务报告不是必须编报,但如
编报须符合中期财务报告标准。
Basis should be consistent with
full year statements and must
include comparatives.
中期财务报告编制需与全年财务报
告基础保持一致,同时应当提供比
较会计报表。

US GAAP美国会计制度
Similar to PRC accounting
standards;
与中国企业会计制度相似。
Can contain condensed financial
information but must include
comparatives.
可以包括简化的财务信息但必须包
括比较会计信息。

Changes in Accounting Policies,
Estimates and Correction of Errors...
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