Diplomacy and Viena Convention

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Course Title: Theory and Practices of Diplomacy
1. Conceptual definitions
1.1. Meaning & definitions of diplomacy

The term diplomacy has changed its meaning & applications over time. Both practitioners & academicians define it differently so as to suit to their interest. In order to properly grasp & digest the meaning of the term, therefore it is necessary and appropriate to explore different definitions of diplomacy given by different scholars & practitioner at different time in history.

✓ The term diplomacy comes from the Greek word diploun/diploma, in reference to an official, folded document, the officials means by which sovereign nations conducts affairs with one another & develop agreement on their respective position. A diploma is understood to be a document by which a privilege conferred: a sate paper, a charter. In ancient Greece, a diploma also served as a certificate certifying completion of a course of study, typically folded in two. ✓ Diplomacy is the art & practice of conducting negations b/n representatives of groups or nations. It usually refers to international diplomacy, the conduct of international r/ns through the intercession of professional diplomats with regard to issues of peace-making, culture, economics, trade, & war. Intentional treaties are usually negotiated by diplomats prior to endorsement by national politicians. ✓ Diplomacy is a means of conducting r/ns among countries, each state aiming at carrying out these affairs to its own best interest. It is wrapped in a complex etiquette impossible to describe. ✓ It is a process of dialogue & negotiations by which states in a system conduct their r/ns & pursue their purpose by means short of war. ✓ Diplomacy is practice & institutions by which nations conduct their r/ns with one another.

✓ Diplomacy is the employment of tact to gain strategic advantage, one set of tools being the phrasing of statements in a non-confrontational or social manner.

✓ Diplomacy as a system of formal, regularized communication that allows states to peacefully conduct their business with each other. ✓ Diplomacy in popular sense means the employment of tact, shrewdness and skill in any negotiation or transaction. In the more special sense used in international relations as the art of negotiation, in order to achieve the maximum of group objectives with a minimum of cost within in system of politics in which war is a possibility. In short it is an application of tact and intelligence in international politics through negotiation, persuasion and compromise. ✓ Diplomacy could be understood as the art of getting others to help, & the skill in handling affairs without arising hostility: tact Comprehensive definition

✓ Diplomacy is a special form of official state activity exercised by the head of states, by the government, minister of foreign r/ns, ambassadors & envoys, delegations at international conferences & missions at international organizations, & also by diplomats.

✓ In more recent times, use has been made of un official, non-traditional diplomatic agents, including business executives, religious figures, NGOs, academicians, & citizens-known as Track II/multi track diplomacy

Radical Views- contrary to the popular perceptions & understandings about the meaning & applications of diplomacy, few scholars have stretched the concept even further, suggesting that force itself when applied in a very limited & selective way to make a point, can almost represent a kind of diplomacy ( the diplomacy of violence/ coercive diplomacy).

1.2 Diplomat-Refers to an official in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (central apparatus or mission abroad) who by virtual of his/her office takes a direct part in the discharge of the ministry’s function’s in the sphere of official contact with foreign states. 1.3. Ambassador-a diplomatic agent of highest rank. More particularly the title is used in most cases, to designate the head...
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