(1) Recumbent (Lying or reclining),
(2) Dorsal (pertaining to the back),
(3) Modified Fowler's, (Fowler's position- that in which the head of the patient's bed is raised to 18-20 inches above the level. (4) Genupectoral position- the patient resting on his knees and chest, arms crossed above his head. (5) Left lateral,
(6) Lithotomy position-the patient on his back, legs flexed on his thighs, thighs flexed on his abdomen and abducted. (7) Prone- face downwards.
(8) Sim's position- patient on left side and chest, right knee and thigh drawn up, left arm along the back. (9) Trendelenburg's postion- patient on back, on a plane inclined 45 degrees, legs and feet hanging down over end of the table..
most common Surgical Positions:
1. Supine or Dorsal Position
The legs are uncrossed, slightly apart and both arms are at the side or at the arm boards. The palms of the hands should be facing the body to prevent unnecessary muscle strain on the arms. This type of surgical position is used during the induction of general anesthesia, abdominal surgeries, open-heart surgeries, surgeries on neck, face and mouth, and most surgeries on extremities. The following equipment are needed for this type of position: (1) pillow & padding materials (2) shoulder roll for modifications that require hyperextension of the patient’s neck (3) padded footrest available for reverse trendelenburg. There are also disadvantages or possible hazards which may include skin breakdown, lumbar strains, circulatory compromise and nerve injury. 2. Prone Position
The patient is primarily positioned in supine and then log-rolled onto abdomen after the induction of anesthesia. The patient’s arms are either on the side or at the arm boards. Those patients who are having surgery on the posterior part such as back or spine or at the back of his or her leg are placed in prone position. The following equipment are needed for this type of position: (1) chest rolls (2) pillows and padding materials (3) headrest or support of head. Possible danger to the patient may include: skin breakdown, reduced respiration, eye or ear damage, reduced circulation, damage to breast or genitals 3. Modified Trendelenburg Position
The modified trendelenburg position is usually used for lower abdominal surgery to allow gravity to assist in maintaining the intestines in the upper part of the abdominal cavity. This position is also used in lower extremity surgery to aid in hemostasis. The patient is positioned in supine position and the operating table is slightly tilted in order for his head to be lower than his feet by 1-5 degrees. 4. Modified Reverse Trendelenburg Position
Modified Reverse Trendelenburg position is generally used for upper abdominal surgery and for the surgery of neck and face.This position allows improved operative exposure because gravity retains the intestines in the lower part of the abdomen. 5. Jackknife or Kraske Position
The patient is placed on supine position and log-rolled into abdomen. OR table is flexed approximately 90 degrees. Arms are placed at the side or at the arm boards. This position is almost exclusively used for rectal surgeries. The equipment needed during the surgery is the same as that of the prone position, but there is a need for a wide adhesive tape. 6. Lithotomy Position
This position is commonly used in operation requiring a perineal approach such as genito-urinal or gynecologic surgery. Patient is placed on supine position and both legs are lifted together into the stirrups. You will need stirrups, stirrup holders and paddings for this surgical position. Possible hazards could be respiratory compromise, skin breakdown, nerve damage and muskuloskeletal injury. 7. Lateral Position
The lateral position is used for operations on the kidney, chest hips or lungs. The patient is positioned supine and then rolled into his side with the...