The AR: is a prohibited result, consequence or conduct/omission (failure to act) or a combination.
Act by Omissions
• Failure to do something.
• Divided into statutory provisions and common law offences
Common Law offences:
o Public Office
o Assumption of Responsibility
o Dangerous Situation
o Whether the obligation has led to a duty?
o On the facts, there was a duty?
Public Office Relationship Ass. of Respon. Dangerous situation
Pitwood : failure to shut the gate before a train was due. Dytham: D was a police officer who was about to go ‘off-duty’, he watched and failed to intervene a man getting kicked out of a nightclub, beaten and kicked to death and left in a gutter. Police officer was convicted of CLO of misconduct in a public office Gibbins & Procter: father failed to feed child. Guilty Stone & Dobinson: Ms Stone would have survived had she received medical assistance. Miller: squatter – (D) had inadvertely and without fault created a dangerous situation.
Take reasonable steps to prevent further damage e.g. call 999/raise the alarm
It is for the courts to decide steps avaliable without putting the (D) at risk.
Airedale NHS Trust v Bland: leading case on Dr’s vs. Patients. “Reasonable and competent medical opinion” not in the ‘best interest’ of the patient to continue treatment Smith : 2 brothers; one brother looking after the other, who is an adult but helpless. There is no duty! R v Nicholls: Held a grandmother who failed to look after her GC, after its mother died.
Smith ’96 spouse v spouse: husband is guilty: b/c failed to call help even though wife said not to. R v Instan aunt v niece. Judgement: that there was a blood relation DPP v Santana-Bermudez: body search, failed to tell the police had needles in pocket.
Failure to fulfil contractual obligations... [continues]
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(2012, 03). Diagram to Actus Reus. StudyMode.com. Retrieved 03, 2012, from http://www.studymode.com/course-notes/Diagram-To-Actus-Reus-943016.html
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"Diagram to Actus Reus." StudyMode.com. 03, 2012. Accessed 03, 2012. http://www.studymode.com/course-notes/Diagram-To-Actus-Reus-943016.html.