Diabetes

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Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) – “a chronic, progressive disease characterized by the body’s inability to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, leading to hyperglycaemia (high blood glucose level)” (Black & Hawks, 2009, p. 1062)

Epidemiology:
Pathophysiology Overview
According to Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System, “[i]n 2008/09, close to 2.4 million Canadians aged 1 yr and older were living w/ diagnosed diabetes (either type 1 or type 2)” making diabetes as one of the most common chronic diseases in Canada (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2011).

most common chronic disease among children and youth, particularly Type 2 since it has been on the rise globally for the last two decades (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2011)

In a decade (1998/99-2008/09), diabetes’ prevalence in Canada increased by 70% (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2011)
More prevalent in males (5.4%) than females (4.4%) (Sanmartin & Gilmore, 2008)

Prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in lowest income group is 4.14X higher than in the highest income group in Canada (Dinca-Panaitescu et al., 2011)

Prevalence of diabetes were more than 4X higher among First Nations than among non-First nations people (Dyck et al., 2010)

Those w/ diabetes are over 3X more likely to be hospitalized w/ cardiovascular disease than individuals without diabetes (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2011)

11% of Canadian adults w/ diabetes were reported to have 2 or more other serious chronic conditions besides diabetes (Canadian Diabetes Association, 2008)

Glucose-regulating hormones (secreted by the pancreas’ Islets of Langerhans): Alpha cells = secrete glucagon (↑ glucose)
β –cells = secrete INSULIN (↓ glucose)
delta cells = secrete somatostatin (inhibit release of glucagon + insulin to extend time of nutrient absorption by tissues)

Incretin – GI hormone that ↑ insulin release of β-cells

Glucose transporters = “special carriers” that help move glucose from blood...
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