Developmental Psychology Final Review

Psychology Final ReviewBehavioral Modification- a formal technique for promoting the frequency of desirable behaviors and decreasing the incidence of unwanted ones (good behavior is reinforced)   Classical Conditioning- a type of learning in which an organism responds in a particular way to a neutral stimulus that normally does not bring about a response (dog responds to bell thinks of food)  Operant Conditioning- a form of learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by its association with positive or negative responses (different from classical because is voluntary unlike classical when dog hears bells, he starts to salivate)  Cohort- a group of people born at around the same time in the same place    Correlational Research- research that seeks to identify whether an association or relationship between two factors exist Critical Period- a specific time during development when a particular event has its greatest consequences and the presence of certain kinds of environmental stimuli are necessary for development to proceed normally  Dependent Variable- the variable the researchers measure  Experimental Research- research designed to discover casual relationships between various factors (cause and effect)  Humanistic Approach- the theory contending that people have a natural capacity to make decisions about their lives and control their behavior (Rogers and Maslow, hierarchy of needs)  Independent Variable- thing being manipulated in experiment  Information Processing Approach- the model that seeks to identify the ways individuals take in, use and store information  Maturation- the predetermined unfolding of genetic information   Naturalistic Observation- naturally occurring behavior is observed without intervention in the situation   Psychoanalytical Theory- the theory proposed by Freud suggests that unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior  Psychodynamic Perspective- the approach that states behavior is motivated by inner forces, memories and conflicts that are generally beyond people’s awareness and control (Freud and Erikson)  Sensitive Period- a point in development when organisms are particularly susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli in their environments, but the absence of those stimuli does not always produce irreversible consequences.  Social-Cognitive Learning Theory- learning by observing the behavior of another person called a model  Dizygotic twins- twins who are produced when two separate ova are fertilized by two separate sperm at the same time (fraternal twins)  DNA- the substance that genes are composed of that determines the nature of every cell in the body and how each will function   Embryonic Stage - the period from 2 to 8 weeks  Fetal Stage- the stage 8 weeks- till birth Genotype- the underlying combination of genetic material present (but not outwardly visible) in an organism   Germinal Stage- the first and shortest stage of prenatal period, first two weeks following conception Monozygotic twins- identical twins   Phenotype- an observable trait, trait that is actually seen  Zygote- the new cell formed by the process of fertilization  APGAR scale-  A- appearance  P- pulse G- grimace  A- activity R- respiration   Post-mature Infants- Infants still unborn 2 weeks after the mother’s due date   Reflexes- unlearned , organized, involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli   Cerebral Cortex- the upper layer of the brain  Myelin- a fatty substance that helps insulate neurons and speeds up the transmission of nerve impulses  Neuron- the basic nerve cell of the nervous system  Plasticity- the degree to which a developing structure or behavior is modifiable due to experience  Principle of the independence systems- the principle that different body systems grow at different rates  SID’s- the unexplained death of a seemingly healthy baby   Synapse Synaptic Pruning- the elimination of neurons as the result of nonuse or lack of...
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