Experiment 1 – Determining the Ideal Gas Constant
Introduction:
Finding and balancing equations to find the ideal gas constant using PV=nRT. Using Excel to format and graph various types of data, both given and calculated. The data given for the decomposition of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 provided the information needed to determine the experimental constant “R” that can then be compared to the textbook definition of “R”. Experimental:

Data was provided as “Experiment 1: Determining the Ideal Gas Constant”, see attachment. An excel spreadsheet was used to enter provided data, calculate conversions and plot a graph showing that data and its trend line. Data for NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 was used. Results and Discussion:

The balanced equations for the decomposition of sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate are: 2NaHCO3 (s) Na2O (s) + H2O (g) + 2CO2 (g), Na2CO3 (s) Na2O (s) + CO2 (g) The mole ratios from reactants to gas are 2:3 for NaHCO3 and 1:1 for Na2CO3. These ratios were used in calculating the table and graph below. The information was accurately calculated and recorded in order to make and determine the constant “R”, which in an ideal gas state is 0.08206 . The constant “R” is calculated using this equation: R = = slope, using the known PV=nRT. Other calculations used were: Mass of chemical(g)/Molar Mass(g) = moles, Temperature conversion˚C+273 = K, Pressure conversion Torr/760 = atm, PV=nRT.

Table 1: Compiled Data- Provided and calculated

Chemical UsedVolume (L)Mass of Chemical (g)Moles (n)Total Mole (n)Temperature (*C)Temperature (K)Measured Pressure (Torr)Measured Pressure (atm)nTPV NaHCO32.005.2130.060.09800.001073.003131.24.1299.878.24 84.012.003.2990.040.06825.001098.002021.62.6664.685.32

...Introduction
A gas is the state of matter that is characterized by having neither a fixed shape nor a fixed volume. Gases exert pressure, are compressible, have low densities and diffuse rapidly when mixed with other gases. On a microscopic level, the molecules (or atoms) in a gas are separated by large distances and are in constant, random motion. When dealing with gases, the IdealGas Law equation is the most famous equation used to relate all the factors in dealing and solving the problem. The four factors or variables for gas are: pressure (P), volume (V), number of mole of gas (n), and temperature (T), and the constant in the equation is R, known as the gasconstant.
The IdealGas law equation which is pV=nRT is obtained by combining the three Gas Laws: Boyle’s Law, Charles’s Law and Avogadro’s Law. Boyle’s Law describes the inverse proportional relationship between pressure and volume at a constant temperature and a fixed amount of gas. Charles's Law describes the directly proportional relationship between the volume and temperature (in Kelvin) of a fixed amount of gas, when the pressure is held constant. Avogadro’s Law describes that volume of a gas is directly proportional to the amount of gas at...

...valency of magnesium
Date :29/6/2011
Lecturer :Dr Ha Sie Tiong
Title: Determination of the Valency of Magnesium
Objective
To study the quantitative relationship between the amount of reactants and products of a reaction. A known starting mass of magnesium and the measured collection of hydrogen gas will be used to determine the reaction stoichiometry and the valency of magnesium.
Introduction
Stoichiometry is a measure of relative amount of reactants to products in an experiment. In this experiment, a known mass of magnesium and volume of hydrogen gas collected is used to determine stoichiometry in this experiment.
A known mass of magnesium ribbon is mixed with hydrochloric acid to produce magnesium chloride and hydrogen gas.
Mg(s) + xHCl (l) MgClx (aq) + (x/2)H2(g)
Magnesium will be the limiting factor in this experiment, excess of hydrochloric acid will react completely with magnesium to give hydrogen gas and magnesium chloride. The yield of hydrogen gas is depend on the amount of magnesium used, thus the volume of hydrogen gas collected can be used to determine the x number.
Methodology
1. Burette is used upside down to collect hydrogen gas produced in the experiment. There’s an unknown volume between unmarked space and the tap of burette, the volume is determined by pipette 25.00cm3 of water into the vertically clamped burette
right...

...IdealGas Law Packet Name ______________________________
12.3 Date __________________ Period _______
Given: IdealGas Law =
then P = n =
V = T =
R =
1. What pressure is required to contain 0.023 moles of nitrogen gas in a 4.2 L container at a
temperature of 20.(C?
2. Oxygen gas is collected at a pressure of 123 kPa in a container which has a volume of 10.0 L. What temperature must be maintained on 0.500 moles of this gas in order to maintain this pressure? Express the temperature in degrees Celsius.
3. How many moles of chlorine gas would occupy a volume of 35.5 L at a pressure of 100.0 kPa and a temperature of 100. (C? After determining the number of moles, calculate the number of grams of chlorine (Cl2) contained in this container?
4. What is the volume of a balloon if it contains 3.2 moles of helium at a temperature of 20. (C and
standard pressure?
5. Calculate the volume which 1.00 mole of a gas occupies at STP.
6. What volume would 20.0g of CO2 occupy at a temperature of 25 (C and a pressure of 105 kPa?
7. A 23.6g sample of an unknown gas occupies a volume of 12.0 L at standard temperature and pressure. What is the molecular mass of this gas?...

...of the Gas Law Constant
Abstract: The result of the change in volume was approximately 22 CC or 0.00084 mol. This translates into the average for the R constant being 83.8L*atm/K*mol. The four determinations ensured that the results were accurate because more than one trial helps somewhat prevent error. Approximately 0.20g of the Mg ribbon was used for these determinations.
Introduction:
1. Theory
If the temperature of agas sample was held constant, its volume varied inversely with its pressure. The Kelvin scale is known as the absolute scale. Charles’ law states that volume of a given mass varies directly with its absolute temperature if the pressure remains constant. Ideal gases are those whose behavior is exactly described by Boyle’s and Charles’ laws. Avagadro’s principle says that the volume of a gas sample at a given temperature and pressure is proportional to the mass or number of moles of the gas.
2. Reference citations
Grover W. Everett, East Carolina University, Signature Lab Series, Prop 0332, p. 141
3. Important Equations
V α 1/P
V=K1/P
V=K2*T
V α T
P1V1T1P2VxT1P2V2T2
Vx=V1(P1/P2)
V2=Vx(T2/T1)
V2=V1(P1*T1/P2*T2)
P2*V2/T2=P1*V1/T1
PV/T=K
PV=nRT
Mg(s)+2HCl(aq)MgCl2(aq)+H2(g)
PV/nT=R
PV/nT=atmosphere-millileter/mole-degree=R
Corrected pressure, atm= ((recorded barometric pressure, torr - vapor...

...130 Laboratory Section: ________
Page 1
Name ______________________
Evaluation of the Gas Law Constant
Objectives In this experiment, we will determine the IdealGasConstant, R, which relates the number of moles of gas present to its volume, pressure and absolute temperature. Background To see how "R" was derived, we must look at the proportionalities defined by the other fundamentalgas laws. For example, Charles' Law showed us that the volume of a gas sample is proportional to its absolute temperature at constant pressure. Thus V ∝ T abs . In addition, Boyle's Law states that the volume of a gas sample is proportional to the inverse of 1 its pressure at constant temperature. That is, V ∝ P . If we include the fact that Avogadro's Law states in effect that the volume of a gas sample is proportional to the number of moles of gas, n, at constant temperature and pressure we have V∝n . Combining these three proportionalities into one produces the following: V∝
nT P
where T is the absolute temperature. Note that any proportionality can be made into an equality if we derive the proper 'proportionality constant'. In this case we will use the symbol "R" to represent this constant. This transforms the above proportionality into the following...

...________________________________________
1. For each gas, record the following:
Propane Butane Methane
a Name and formula C3H8 C4H10 CH4
b Mass of 100 mL gas (g) 0.274g 0.361g 0.100g
c Molecular weight of the gas (g/mole) 44.10g/mol 58.12g/mol 16.04g/mol
d Number of moles in the 100 mL sample 0.0062mol 0.0062mol 0.0062mol
Average of all 3 gases: (0.0062+0.0062+0.0062) / 3 = 0.0062
2. To verify Avogadro's Law, calculate the average number of moles for the three gases along with the percent deviation for each gas, according to the formula:
% deviation = |(moles of gas) - (average for all gases)| / (average for all gases) * 100%
%deviation= (0.0062 -0.0062) mol / 0.0062mol *100%
% deviation= 0%
a Average number of moles in 100 mL for all three gases 0.0062moles
b % deviation for each gas All 3 the same: 0%
c Do your results confirm Avogadro's Law? Yes
4. Based on the calculated number of moles in one 1 atm of gas, how many molecules are in 1 atm of gas? (There are 6.022 x 1023 molecules/mole)
Since all 3 gases have the same number of moles I will calculate 1 formula for all 3.
0.0062mol (6.022 x 1023 molecules/mol)= 0.0373364 →3.73 x 1022 molecules for each gas are in 1atm.
5. Even though the number of molecules in 1 atm of gas at...

...IdealGas Law Lab
1. Procedure: First, we used a balance to weigh the canister of gas, and recorded that mass as the original weight.
Then, we filled a large bucket with water and recorded the temperature. We then filled a small test tube with water at the same temperature and poured that water into a graduated cylinder to measure the original volume of water in the tube.
We then poured the water back into the test tube and placed the tube into the bucket with the opening upwards, turning the open end downwards after the tube was fully submerged beneath the surface. We then placed the canister directly below the opening of the test tube, and released the gas so that the bubbles rose into the test tube.
Next, we used a cork whose head was larger than the opening of the test tube to block off the opening (without changing the pressure inside of the tube), so that we could transport the remaining water to a graduated cylinder. When doing this, it was very important that the water level inside of the tube was equal to that of the surrounding water in the bucket, because that ensured that since the water pressure in the tube was the same as that of the surrounding water, the pressure of the gas would be the same as that of the surrounding air. Thus, we recorded the gas pressure to be the same as the pressure in the room, which was calculated to be 763.0 mmHg.
We poured the remaining...

...IdealGas Law:
The idealgas law is the equation of state of a hypothetical idealgas. It obeys Boyle's Law and Charles Law.
IdealGas Law Formula :
General Gas Equation: PV = nRT
Pressure(P) = nRT / V
Volume(V) = nRT / P
Temperature(T) = PV / nR
Moles of Gas(n) = PV / RT
where,
P = pressure,
V = volume,
n = moles ofgas,
T = temperature,
R = 8.314 J K-1 mol-1, idealgasconstant.
IdealGas Law Example:
Case 1: Find the volume from the 0.250 moles gas at 200kpa and 300K temperature.
P = 200 kPa, n = 0.250 mol, T = 300K, R = 8.314 J K-1 mol-1
Step 1: Substitute the values in the below volume equation:
Volume(V) = nRT / P
= (0.250 x 8.314 x 300) / 200
= 623.55 / 200
Volume(V) = 3.12 L
This example will guide you to calculate the volume manually.
Case 2: Find the temperature from the 250ml cylinder contaning 0.50 moles gas at 153kpa.
V = 250ml -> 250 / 1000 = 0.250 L, n = 0.50 mol, P = 153 kPa, R = 8.314 J K-1 mol-1
Step 1: Substitute the values in the below temperature equation:
Temperature(T) = PV / nR
= (153 x 0.250) / (0.50 x 8.314)
= 38.25 / 4.16
Temperature(T) = 9.2 K
This...

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