1. What kinds of parent-child interactions lead to language learning in babies? pointing, eye gazing, smiles, vocalizations, and engagement in games, nursery rhymes, and songs, family stories, and picture books 2. What categories do children’s first words usually fall into?
names of animals, foods, toys, actions
adjectives and social words (please, thank you, no, yes)
3. How does a sight-word reading vocabulary normally develop? when children see the words on paper, they associate the graphemes with a mental representation such as a picture, an experience, a sign or a spoken word 4. How do deaf readers store “reading by eye” words in their brains?
the reader identifies letters by visual analysis and assigns the letters to a graphic code, the semantic code is stored in the brain 5. How does the “reading by ear” process differ from the “reading by eye” process? reading by ear also begins with a visual analysis process, letters are identified and assigned graphic code or set of graphemes. graphemes are then translated to acoustic code, letters are linked to sounds and words then semantically interpreted 6. How do deaf readers use “reading by ear” and “reading by eye” models? reading by eye plays a major role in learning how to read and managing texts, reading by the ear is useful for analyzing words and breaking down the unit words into smaller parts 7. Do deaf children perceive fingerspelling as individual letters or as complete units? Explain. finger spelling is like using signs, they represent whole meanings Ex: sign B on check=friend BOB sign BOB as whole sign
8. What has research shown about the effectiveness of Manually Coded English (MCE) systems for literacy in deaf children?
even though some deaf children benefit from learning to read and write using MCE, many deaf children still do not achieve the literacy skills at the levels they should be capable of achieving 9. Describe the kinds of writing errors in the passage “Knight and the Dragon” on page 96.
10. Describe three difficulties deaf readers may encounter in comprehending stories even when familiar vocabulary is used. trouble with vocabulary and grammar of English, difficulty writing coherent stories, difficulty with passive constructions, difficulty understanding figurative language (better memory if they practice signing the stories) 11. How is English literacy taught to deaf children?
if children have competence in one language they can transfer it to a second, using ASL as a bridge to English, no coherent way of teaching English literacy to deaf children, capitalize on visual pathways 12. How can graphic similarities in written words be problematic for deaf readers? they guess words based on similarities rather than reading signed CAT for CART, FROG or FOG, THE for THERE, and FATHER for FARTHER 13. What is “interlanguage”?
mixing the two languages (ASL&English), interlanguage grammar is established when the students writing is influenced by both the first and second language 14. What is CART?
a trained stenographer uses a 24 key machine to encode spoken English phonetically into a computer, it is then converted to English text and displayed on a computer screen or TV monitor in real time 15. Describe three technologies that can be used in literacy teaching for deaf children. computer-assisted note-taking systems: typist uses a standard QWERTY keyboard and types onto a laptop as words are being spoken
C-Print system: produces real time text through automatic speech recognition and a computerized keyboard-based abbreviation system
CART: communication access real time translation
16. About what percentage of deaf children have educationally significant disabilities?
about 30-40% of deaf children have disabilities that are...