Criminology

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Chapter 10

Causes of Violence
Personal traits
Ineffective families
Evolutionary factors/Human instinct
Exposure to violence
Substance abuse
Firearm availability
Cultural values
National values
Checkpoints
There are a number of suspected causes of violence.
Some violent criminals have personal traits that make them violence-prone, including mental impairments, and intellectual dysfunction. Victims of severe child abuse and neglect may become violence-prone adults. Violence may have its roots in human evolution, being almost instinctual in some instances. Drug and alcohol abuse has been linked to violence through a psychopharmacological relationship, economic compulsive behavior, or systemic link. Although guns do not cause violence, their presence can escalate its severity. Subcultures of violence encourage people to use aggressive tactics to solve disputes. Some nations have cultures that make them prone to violence.

Forcible Rape
Incidence of rape
Types of rapist
Types of rape- date, marital, statutory
Causes of rape- evolutionary, biological factors, male socialization, psychological abnormality, social learning, sexual motivation. Rape and the law(Aggravated Rape)- proving rape, consent, legal reform Murder and Homicide

Degrees of murder- 1st degree, 2nd degree, manslaughter, voluntary/non-negligent manslaughter, involuntary/negligent manslaughter Deliberate indifferent murder
Nature and extent of murder- infanticide, filicide, eldercide Murderous relations- romantic, personal, stranger, student Serial killers- thrill killers, mission killers, expedience killers Female serial killers

Mass murders- revenge killers, love killers, profit killers, terrorists killers Spree killers
Assault and Battery
Nature and extent of assault
Domestic violence- child abuse (neglect, child sexual abuse), causes of child abuse, parental abuse, spousal abuse...
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