is a society's response to crime.
- understanding the offenders.
- preventing the crime from happening.
Elements in Criminal Justice
- maintaining order in society.
- providing community services (example: police responsibilities into the educational setting:officers giving speeches at school to raise awareness)
Who plays the key role in Criminal Justice?
police, legal system, correctional agencies, members of the community(co-producer of criminal justice)
The study of Criminal Justice is an interdisciplinary endeavor. (participation of or more fields of study) which includes studies of the following:
Criminology-study of why people commit crime, understanding cause & effects to develop prevention & rehabilitation programs, understanding the trend of criminal behavior. Emergency Management-study of how to prepare for, respond to, & recover from a disaster or crisis situations. (example: natural disasters) Forensic Science - application of science principals. Scientists analyze the material from criminal scenes. (example: identifying offenders, making evidence available for trials) Homeland Security - in response to 9/11, prevention for terrorist attacks. responding to threats. (example: boarder patrol) Law and Legal Studies
Security Administration - identification, management of risk in residential settings. (example: Cunningham) Victimology - study of why people become victims.
Criminal Justice As System
The ways criminal justice agencies work together to process a case. The concept of a system. there is a process through which all cases progress, defined by a series of steps or activities that must occur in each case. process doesn't change. clear communication between agencies. all agencies share common set of goals & philosophies about what criminal justice should do and how it should operate. Some scholar argue that Criminal Justice is a non-system.
that authorities are people = no single point of view or rule. Discretion Criminal justice professional's ability to decide the case. (example: tickets or warning) it is not systematic but unavoidable. Criminal Justice As Profession
Education: college degree/ academic training
College of Ethics: guide to professional practice
Specialization: expertise in the field
Accreditation: certification or license
Career: life time employment opportunity
Prestige: status in the profession
Criminal Justice As Bureaucracy
-system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials-
The criminal justice system is comprised(include) of a variety of police, courts and correctional agencies. The budget: 214billion dollars a year.
2.4 million employees.
A bureaucratic agency is governed by many rules, policies, and procedures. It is organized in a hierarchy with clear lines of supervision of employees; requires substantial amounts of paperwork to document activities; and requires training of employees. All have fairly detailed statements of policy and procedures as well as to rules to govern the agency's business.
Max Weder says "Bureaucracy are routine. People are affected by this routinization. We don't need people to ask questions, we need people that follow instructions. We don't want individuality." -Example of bureaucracy: DMV
The nature of bureaucracy contributes to understanding why there are different goals among criminal justice agencies. There is sometimes conflict between bureaucracies, especially if they have different organizational cultures; likewise conflict can develop between professions and bureaucracies.
Criminal Justice As Moral Agent
It is impossible to separate the study of criminal justice from the study of philosophy. Being able to make decisions that both influence/influenced by notions of morality. Codes of Ethics: written statements of values and ethical standards
Criminal justice system is responsible for enforcing socially accepted notions of what is or is not moral....