Criminal Investigation Notes

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Chapter 9 Wrongful Deaths
 
Homicide numbers decline from 2009 to 2010
 
Peaked in 2001
 
4.8 offenders per 100K
 
88% know each other (victim and offender)
 
Officers Killed
* 48 nationally
* 45 by firearm
* 47 male
* 19 with firearm within 5 feet
 Officers assaulted
* Underreported
* 57 thousand
* 10 per 100 officers
Modes of Death
 
Accidental
* Car crash
* Fall
* Industrial accident
* Work related accidents
 Natural
* Heart attack
* Old age
Suicide
 
 
Murder
 
Murder Classifications
* First degree
* Second degree
 Manslaughter
* Voluntary
* ------->  unintentional shooting
* Involuntary 
*  -------> reckless behavior
Non criminal homicides
* Not in UCR ( not crimes)
* Excusable
*  -------> mistake
* Justifiable
*  -------> self defense
 Suicide
* Suicide by police
* Autoerotic asphyxiation is not suicide 
*  -------> accidental
Homicide 
* Premeditated
* Malicious intent
* While attempting to commit a felony 
* Anyone involved in commission of the felony
Indiana Law
 
Murder
* Person who knowlingly kills another human being
*  arson, burglary, sex crimes, product tamperin
 
Preliminary Scene  and Crime Scene Investiagtion
 
Primary goals
* Cause of death by criminal act
* Who caused the death
* No aspect of the homicide is more open to error than the preservation and protection of crime scene Identifying Victim
* Identify using more than one method  
* Completely process scene before removing body
 Dying Declarations
* 3 part admissibility test
* Victim believed death was immenent at time of declaration *  Statement concerned cause or circumstance of impending death *  the victim was unavailable for testimony
 Examining the Tme of Death
* Rigor mortis - stiffening of body
* Postmodern lividity - pooling of blood
* Cadaveric spasm - body freezes in it's position due to quick death * Body temperature - usually determines time of death, outside variances * Eyes
* Insects - type of insect determine where victim was killed  * Animals
* Water
 
Gunshot wounds
 
Tattooing
* Gunpowder appears on victims
* Measures distance from shooter
Smudging  
  
Types
 
Entrance 
* Usually smaller
Exit
* Usually larger 
Shotgun evidence
* No ballistics
* Gauge
* Wadding
Murder types
* Serial
* Mass
* Sensational
 Serial
* More than one person
* Over an extended period of time
Mass
* Multiple people killed at one time
Sensational
* Someone in the public eye
 
Chapter 10 Robbery
 
 
Robbery
* Theft or attempted theft  
* Direct confrontation with the victim
* Putting them in fear
* Using force or threat of force
 
Robbery vs Burglary
 
Pick pocket/Purse grabs - usually theft
 
Robbery is opportunistic because it is quick, easy and requires little planning  
Reasons for robbery
* Money is primary motivation
* Thrill or gang inittiation rights
* Property, drugs and alcohol
Patterns of Robbery
* Person in charge of money
* Open area
* Private  premises
* Preliminary association
* Previous association
Preliminary
* Briefly met person who robbed you
* Tmeis limited 
 Previous
* Someone knows how person/business operates
 Carjacking vs Vehicle Theft
 
Types of Robbers
* Professional
* Opportunistic
* Drug addict
* Alcoholic
First Run Responders
 
1 + 1 Theory
* Where ther is one suspect, there is likely two
* Where there is one weapon, there is likely two
Backup
Vehicle positioning
Cover vs concealment
Cover exits
 
Preliminary Investigation
 
Determine if suspect...
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