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  • Topic: Han Dynasty, Xiang Yu, Emperor Gaozu of Han
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Lecture Notes 22—May 9th 2011

*NOTE: This review sheet is NOT meant to be a comprehensive overview of what you need to know for exams or quizzes. It is merely another tool to help you get started studying. The following concepts may or may not be seen on the exam and there may be concepts on the exam that are not covered on this sheet.

Han Dynasty (206BCE-220BCE)

* Western Han 206 BCE - 9 CE
* –Wang Mang Inter-Regum 9-23 CE
* ‘Xin Dynasty’
* Eastern Han CE 25 - 220
* “Three Kingdoms”
1. Shu (221-263)
2. Wu (222-280)
3. Wei (220-265)

Revolt Against Qin
* 208 BCE: Chen She
* –Conscripts into Rebels
* Anti-Qin Confederation
* –Xiang Yu
* General of Chu
* Aristocratic Family of Chu
* –Liu Bang
* Non-Aristocratic Family
* 207 BCE: Liu Bang
* –Army Enters Xianyang
* Accepts Surrender of Third Emperor (‘King of Qin’) * 207 BCE: Battle of Julu–20,000 vs. 300,000
* –Xiang Yu Buries Alive 200,000 Qin Soldiers
* ‘Surrender is Dishonorable’
Fall of Qin
* 207 BCE: Xiang Yu
* –Enters Xianyang
* Executes Qin Royal Family
* –Burns Qin Capital
* Imperial Library
* –“Sworn Brother” Liu Bang Withdraws to ‘Sichuan

* Xiang Yu: King of Chu
* –Restores Confederacy
* Distributes Kingdoms
* –Liu Bang: King of Han
* Han River Valley
* Opposition to Xiang Yu
* –Chu-Han Contention

Liu Bang---First Han Emperor (Gan Gao Zhu)
* Commoner
* Modest Background
* Heavy Drinker
* Unusual Face
* Fortune Teller’s Daughter
* ‘Sworn Brother’ of Xiang Yu
* Competitive Allies
* Yields to Xiang Yu
* Stages Come-Back
* 203 BCE: Xiang Yu Captures Father of Liu Bang
* –Threatens Death

Western Han
* Suppression of Regional Powers–202 - 87 BCE
* Princes’ Rebellion–154 BCE
* Consolidation of Central Control
* –Han Wudi
* Expanding Frontiers
* –Struggles Against Xiongnu of Steppe
* Landordism & Regional Resurgence–87 BCE - 88 CE

Qin-Modified
* HAN adopts Qin organizational techniques
* –Legalism tempered by Confucian Humanism
* –165 BCE: Written Exams for Bureaucratic Recruitment * 3 Branch Government (Center & Locale)
* –Civil (Taxes); Military; Supervisory
* 100 Commandaries; 1500 Counties
* (Short-Lived) Restoration of Nobility
* –Eastern Territories:
* 9 brothers & sons as “kings”
* 150 key allies as “marquis”
* Tripartite Federation–30 : 30 : 30

Empress Lu
* 195 BCE: Dying Gaozu Names Heir
* –docile 15 yo son, ‘Hui Di’ (r. 195-188)
* Assisted by Mother, widowed Empress Lu
* 188 BCE: Hui Di dies
* 188-80 BCE: Empress Lu as Regent
* –Appoints many Relatives to Office
* Kills Rivals
* 180 BCE: Empress Lu Dies
* –Family Purged from Office
* elderly senior officials of late Han Gaozu install new emperor * –Han Wen Di: 5th Son of Gaozu + concubine
Wu Zetian
* (624-705)

Imperial Consolidation
* Suppression of Regional Powers
* –Regional kings soon replaced by Liu clan
* –Liu kingdoms divided up
* Qi split into 6 states within 40 years
* Rebellion of Feudatories 154 BCE
* –Alliance of 7 States; Suppressed
* Wave of Confiscations

Han Wudi
* Reigns 55 Years
* Enthroned at 15
* Dies at 68
* Consolidates Imperial Power
* Conquers New Territory
* 134-119 BCE: Wars with Xiongnu; Korea; Southwest
* Imperial ‘Confucian’ Academy (124 BCE)
* 5 Senior Erudite Scholars (1 for each ‘classic’) * 3000 to 30,000 students
* Graduates to govt office
Five Classics
1. Classic of Documents (Shu Jing)
2. Classic of Odes (Shi Jing)
3. Classic of...
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