Theory: In scientific usage, a consistent perspective on human behavior, psychopathology, and mechanisms of therapeutic change.
Common Factors shared by all psychotherapies and not specific to any one. Most consensual common factors: client’s positive expectations and facilitative therapy relationship.
Jerome Frank: in Persuasion & Healing three important factors: confiding relationship, a healing setting, a rationale, and a therapeutic ritual. If a patient believes the rationale, they are more likely to believe in the therapeutic ritual.
* Positive expectations frequently correlate with positive outcomes * Responsible for up to 1/3 of successful psychotherapy
* Necessary but not sufficient for treatment success
* An active, common ingredient in all forms of psychotherapy
* Greatest area of theoretical convergence is development of strong therapeutic alliance
Rogers’ Facilitative Conditions:
-People improve as a result of having special attention paid to them -Psychotherapist gives special, undivided attention to client -50% of public speaking phobias show improvement following attention placebo -Placebo groups are used to control for Hawthorne effect
Specific Factors: how the different theories disagree.
-In addition to common factors, psychotherapies have factors relatively specific to them.
-Psychotherapists cannot practice “nonspecifically”- they say & do specific things
-Processes of change are specific or unique contribution of each therapy system
Awareness or Insight Therapies: Processes of...