Counseling

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List the typical reactions to transitions of loss/crisis: (1-7) (1) Shock and disorganization
(2) Expression of anguish and/or relief
(3) Experience of denial and minimization of the loss
(4) Sadness and lowered self-esteem
(5) Taking hold of a new way of life and letting go of the past (6) Final acceptance of change and planning for the future (7) Reflections on learning from the transition experience

Define stress reation: (8-12)
A condition characterized by physiological tension and persistent choice conflict.

List the four defining criteria of crises: (13-16)
(1) Are temporary
(2) Result in distress and often dysfunction
(3) Involve loss of coping capacity
(4) May have long term negative or positive consequences

List the four phases of crisis as described by Caplan: (17-20) (1) Initial tension is experienced, which arouses habitual adaptive responses (2) Tension increases under continuous stimulation and lack of success is experienced in coping and tension reduction. This frustration is complicated by distress and inefficiency. (3) Tension increases until emergency resources, internal and external, are mobilized. The crisis may be eased temporarily though emergency coping mechanisms, see the problem differently, or relinquishing unrealistic goals. (4) An acute phase follows if the crisis is not eased in stage 3, or averted by denial or resignation. Tension mounts to the point where the major dysfunctions in behavior develop and or emotional control is lost.

Define support and list its three primary sources: (21-28)
Support is a condition in which the helpee feels secure and comfortable psychologically. It includes awareness of well-being and satisfaction of “ affect hunger.” Support offers a healing process- an integration of all parts of the person. (1) The relationship itself, where the helpee experiences the helper’s acceptance and warmth. (2) Direct counseling help in the form of reassurance or environmental support (3) Decisive and firm crisis management.

List the four steps of psychological first aid required in response to a crisis situation: (29-32) (1) Appraise the current condition of the person and the nature and severity of the crisis. (2) Decide on the type of help most needed at the moment based on an appraisal of the coping skills and resources of the person. (3) Act in a directly helpful way.

(4) Resolve the state of crisis and the achieve renewed equilibrium.

List and describe the general strategy for building/maintaining helpee hope in crisis situations: (33-40) The first step would be validation of the helpee’s personal strengths. The second step would be to assess the strengths of the person’s motivation for working toward new goals. The third step is the encourage the setting of new goals. Finally, an effective approach to developing hope involves a solid motivation for action. This is probably the most difficult since it involves shaking thet person loose from passivity patterns, feelings of helplessness, and despairing moods.

List the issues, which must be addressed when deciding on level and type of contact with clients. (41-45) (1) the good judgment of the helper about the needs of this helpee. (2) Helpers’ awareness of their own needs and ethics.

(3) What is likely to be most helpful within the helper’s rationale of helping. (4) What risks the helper is willing to take, having considered agency policy, local customs, professional ethics, and age, sex and attitude of the helpee.

What are three of the four goals of reassurance? (46-48)
Increase helpers confidence, mobilize their strengths, reduce their anxiety to optimum working levels, or reinforce a desired behavior.

List the three primary reassuring skills and discuss positive and negative components of each. (49-55) (1) Expressing approval of a helpee’s statement.
(2) Predicting outcomes
(3) Factual assurance
The cons to these...
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