Cosimo d'Medici: Ruler of Florence during Renaissance

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Final Exam Study Guide
Cosimo d’Medici- ruled Florence during the Renaissance from behind the scenes; very wealthy; political dynasty based on his family; backed architect for the dome on Basilica of St. Mary of the Flower Vasco da Gama- 1400/1500’s; Portuguese explorer; one of the most successful in the age of exploration and the commander of the first ships to sail directly from Europe to India; discovered a route to India around the Cape of Good Hope on the southern tip of Africa Caliban- main character in Shakespeare’s The Tempest; represents theme of nature; anti-hero; slave, uncivilized, savage; knew world far better than Prospero; yearned for freedom; claimed island; was set free by Prospero at the end Society of Jesus- 1540; Jesuits; completely loyal to the Pope and the church who worked to fight against the Protestant Reformation; opened schools to train the elite in Catholic ways; missions to covert non-Christian areas and converted Protestant areas back to Catholicism; came about despite the Reformation; founded by Ignatius of Loyola Mamluks- lasted from1250-1517; Muslim state governed by military slaves; so powerful that they not only defeated the Crusaders, but the Mongols as well; controlled gold trade, very wealthy; fell to a Muslim empire based in Baghdad (Turks); Egypt and Turkey- new kingdom run by white slaves mostly from Greece; military slaves; defeated Louis IX when he attacked Egypt; “Allah’s avengers” Rabelais- lived in 1500’s; major French writer during the Renaissance; Bawdy Humor, The Carnival; humor and secularism Printing Press- circa 1450; created by Johannes Gutenberg in Germany; a slow spread but still had a major impact on history; used during the Renaissance and Reformation; used to spread thousands of copies of the Theses around Europe “The elect”- Reformation; individuals who were "elected" by the Lord to go to heaven and be saved not by secular deeds but by predetermination Devshirme- during the Golden Age; new kind of tax in Ottoman Empire; only non-Muslim communities had to pay; a certain number of young boys had to be sent to Constantinople to be trained as imperial guard; became the core of the Ottoman army Hispaniola- 1400’s; island of Santo Domingo; island inhabited by Taino; Columbus made Hispaniola his headquarters and died before he found out that it was not India Al-Andalus- during the Golden Age; Muslims conquered Spain and transformed into Al-Andalus in 711; Spanish were Berbers/Moors and they created the Umayyad dynasty Canary Current- during time of Columbus; ran into Barbados; Columbus connected Canary Current and Gulf Stream to connect Europe with the Americas; current in the Atlantic Ocean that made it possible for navigators to cross the ocean 5 percent- only 5% of the slaves in the NAST were sent to North America; all others were sent to sugar islands in the Caribbean Cordoba- during the Golden Age; Umayyad dynasty was based here; famous cities- Granada, Toledo, Seville; astonishing achievement during the dark ages; planned city; 10 miles of roadways that were lit every night; built one of the grandest mosques in the Muslim world- Alhambra; welcomed people of all religions; cosmopolitan; 1236- defeated by expanding Catholic kingdoms Martin Luther- during the Reformation; monk who believed the Catholic church was corrupt and wrote the 95 Theses in protest in 1517; saw the donation and indulgence trade as buying and selling industries and the sin of simony; excommunicated in 1521; Wittenburg, Germany Montezuma- ruled from 1440-1469; most famous emperor of the Aztec world; ruled during peak of empire in mid 15th century; dominated central Mexico all the way to the water; believed that Cortes was Quetzalcoatl Humanism- Christian humanism during the Reformation; human freedom and individualism are natural parts of Christian Doctrine and practice; doing things for humans and for one’s self; Petrarch Quakers- belief that everyone can experience an inner light given by God;...
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