o An alliance with Britain, France and Russia…
o It later included Serbia, Japan, Italy, Portugal, Romania and Greece and eventually the U.S. This was an alliance formed in WWI o Because fought other ones and this alliance pulled other people into the war • Central Powers-
o Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria. o Germany went to war b/c Russia went to war b/c Russia was backing the Serbs • Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand-
o 1863-1914 the heir to the Habsburg throne…
o He advocated conciliatory policy toward the Slavic minorities in the empire. o He symbolized the Serbs a continuation of Austro-Hungarian domination. o The group behind the assassination, the Black Hand, was Bosnian-Serbs who wanted to end Austrian rule. ▪ The government in Austria-Hungary responded by declaring war on Serbia… They suspected their leaders of aiding the assassination… ▪ This pulled other nations like Germany into the war. Britain France and Russia entered the war against Germany… • Black Hand-
o The group that assassinated the Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand. o Has Russia as an ally and this pulls them into the war and Germany goes to war to fight against o Bosnian Serbs that wanted to end Austrian rule
o This led Austria-Hungary to declare war on Serbia because they believed that Serbian leaders were behind the assassination. ▪ This pulled other countries into the war. 1914 • Battle of Verdun-
o February 1916.
o Symbolizes the senseless slaughter of the war on the Western front. ▪ Germans launched a surprise offensive firing up to a million shells a day at the French positions. The French stopped the German assault but it claimed nearly a million French and German casualties. ▪ More soldiers may have been killed per a square yard than in any other battler in history. It had little impact on the war itself. • Paris Peace Conference-
o 1919 held in the former royal palace in Paris.
o Reshaped Europe and resulted in the Treaty of Versailles. o Woodrow Wilson went hoping to use his prestige and nation’s growing power to sell his Fourteen points. o Wilson proposes conciliatory agreement of Germany. He had to compromise with the French who wanted to divide Germany. o The final treaty forced Germany to pay huge annual payments know as reparations to the Allies to compensate for war costs. Basically this left Germany bankrupt. • Woodrow Wilson-
o U.S. President who went to Paris Peace conference in 1919 and proposed his Fourteen Points. o Unable to persuade Congress into letting US join League of Nations o President of the United States
• Fourteen Points-
o Wilson’s agenda proposed at Paris Peace conference in 1919 o In speech given
• Russian Revolution of 1917-
o Overthrew the czarist government and took Russia out of the war in early 1918 o Russian people sick of war and seeking change sparking two revolutions. o Important because it was one of the three greatest upheavals in modern world history ▪ It charted a non capitalist path to industrialization o March 1917 a spontaneous revolution overthrows the czar, but it’s urban liberal leaders could not satisfy the people’s demand for reform and an end to the war, so radical soviets, allied with Bolsheviks organized and in October seized power, after which they removed Russia from war o Two Revolutions…
▪ March topples the czar, imprisons the imperial family and sets up a provisional gov’t. • Erupted while riots and strikes caused by food shortages were paralyzing cities • Women demand relief and food in St. Petersburg • New provisional gov’t leaders like Aleksandr Kerensky wanted reform and...