Consumer Behavior Notes

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* Week 2 Session Readings (Perceptions, Learning and Memory)

Required Readings:

1. Retail Store design manipulations:
Marketers Track Retinas to Find What Draws Consumers - WSJ.com * What consumer sdo and what they say they do it completely different. * The use of computer simulations and eye-retinas to better understand what attracts consumers, rather than focus groups and in-dept interviews as consumers will always try to please their testers and overestimate their interests of the products.

2. Another retail store market research:
How retailers study and test us to maximize profit – USATODAY.com * “Knowing too much”

3. Relationship between atmospherics and product price perception: STUDY: When Consumers Are Relaxed, They Value Products 10% More - Business Insider http://www.neurosciencemarketing.com/blog/articles/scent-increases-product-recall.htm * Relaxeed consumers value a product based on benefits, whereas less-relaxed consumers value a product based on the product’s physical features and advantages.

4. Scent perceptions in different cultures:
Scent Marketing Digest » Scent in Global Cultures

5. Meaning of color worldwide:
http://universalfacts.blogspot.com/2005/12/meaning-of-colors-color-symbolism.html. * Three categories of colors: neutral (black, white, gray, beige, brown); warm (red, orange, yellow, yellow-green, purple); cool (blue, violet, turquoise, sea-green, green)

6. New packaging design from Heinz ketchup:
Putting the Squeeze on Consumer Choice | Knowledge@Wharton Today * Dip & Squeeze new package.

7. Neuromarketing example:
Futurity.org – Technology ‘reads mind’ to make movies
* Recording how the human brain remembers rough visuals of movie clips.

8. Coulter, Robin A., Gerald Zaltman, and Keith S. Coulter. "Interpreting Consumer Perceptions of Advertising: An Application of the Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique." Journal of Advertising (Winter 2001). * Advertising effects: economical and social

* ZMET because it is a qualitative methodology that uses an in-depth, personal interview, which thereby enables researchers to explore and probe informants' thoughts and feelings more extensively. * The ZMET interview employed several steps to bring key metaphors to the surface and determine their interrelationships, including (1) storytelling, (2) missed images, (3) Kelly Repertory Grid and laddering, (4) sensory images, (5) the vignette, and (6) the summary image * Our findings illustrate that advertising may serve as the hostess to introduce new offerings, the teacher to educate the public about product and service attributes and benefits, the counselor to provide comparative information useful in decision making, the enabler to offer prepurchase and postpurchase reassurances, and the magician to stimulate creativity and thinking. In addition, our informants viewed advertising as a performer that can provide laughter and enjoyment. Similar to the affect transfer literature, several informants commented that feeling good about an advertisement made them feel good about the advertised offering. * Our informants also addressed the economic benefits of advertising, which we discussed as a positive force, using the conceptual metaphor engine. * Our data indicated that, because of its prevalent, intrusive, and repetitive nature, advertising was viewed as an omnipresent being, a nosy neighbor, and a broken record. Consistent with the attitude toward advertising literature focused on societal effects, some informants perceived advertising as a conman, manipulative and deceptive, not telling the truth about products or not concerned about customers, but rather focused on making money. Our data also suggested that advertising as the seducer encourages excessive or compulsive shopping, often for products that are not really needed. Our...
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