Consumer Behavior

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Chapter 9: Learning and Memory
Marketers expend considerable effort to have consumers learn about their products. Therefore it is vital that we understand how consumers, and that includes us, learn.

Learning: Learning refers to any change in the content or organisation of long-term memory. Consumer behaviour is largely learned behaviour. Learning is defined as any change in the content or organisation of long-term memory. Consumers must learn almost everything related to being a consumer: product existence, performance, availability, values, preference and so on. Marketing managers are very interested in the nature of consumer learning.

Learning Under High and Low Involvement
* Learning under high-involvement conditions: consumer has a high motivation to learn. Learning may occur either in a high-involvement or a low-involvement situation. A high-involvement situation is one where the consumer is motivated to learn the material. A consumer may need to study a brochure to determine which model will be purchased. * Learning under low-involvement conditions: most consumers learning is in a low-involvement context A low-involvement situation is one where the consumer has little or no motivation to learn, such as when an ad comes onto the TV in the middle of their favourite show. Most of the learning experienced by consumers is low-involvement learning.

Types of Learning
Conditioning| Cognitive learning|
* classical conditioning * operant conditioningThere are two forms of conditioned learning: classical and operant. Classical conditioning is the process of using an existing relationship between a stimulus and response to bring about the learning of the same response for a different stimulus. | * iconic rote learning * vicarious learning/modelling * reasoningThe cognitive approach to learning encompasses the mental activities of humans as they work to solve problems. It includes iconic rote learning (forming associations between unconditioned stimuli without rewards), vicarious learning/modelling (learning by observing others), and reasoning.| Conditioning: Conditioning refers to learning that is based on the association of a stimulus (information) and a response (a behaviour or feeling). Conditioning is based on the association of a stimulus (information) with a response (behaviour or feeling). There are two main types of conditioning. 1. Classical Conditioning

Classical conditioning is the process of using an established relationship between one stimulus (music) and response (pleasant feelings) to bring about the learning of the same response (pleasant feelings) to a different stimulus (the brand). * Establishing a relationship between stimulus and response to bring about the learning of the same response to a different stimulus * Most common in low-involvement situations

* Learning is more often a feeling or emotion than information EX: Classical conditioning was first shown experimentally by Pavlov. He noticed that the dog salivated when food was introduced. The dog was conditioned food = eating = salivate. He introduced a new stimulus, a bell ringing, at each feeding. Bell + food = salivate. Then food was not given, but the ringing of the bell caused the dog to salivate. EX: The affective response to the Qantas campaign ‘ I still call Australia home’ is an example of classical conditioning, as the learning is not informational but emotive.

2. Operant Conditioning
Operant conditioning (or instrumental learning) involves rewarding desirable behaviors such as brand purchases with a positive outcome that serves to reinforce the behavior. * Trial precedes liking

* reverse is often true for classical conditioning
* product sampling is an example of this type of learning Reinforcement plays a much larger role in operant conditioning than it does in classical conditioning. No automatic stimulus–response relationship is involved, so the subject must...
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