In a Democratic State, the main set of rules is called the Constitution. These rules are generally obeyed by everyone. Other rules that the citizens have to obey are the Civil Law, the Commercial Law and the Criminal Law. There are also other rules that the members of the state may have to obey. These would be Religious Rules or rules in a political party or other social club.
The Constitution is divided into two main sections, The Human Rights and The Institutions of the State.
In the Human Rights section, the Constitution defines what rights each member of the state is entitled to. For example, it may define that everyone has the right to vote in an election, or that everyone is entitled to a pension when he reaches a certain age.
The Institutions of the State is divided into three sections: the Legislative, the Executive and the Judiciary.
The Legislative is made up of a group of people who have the power to make new laws or alter existing ones, including the Constitution itself. (The Constitution is harder to alter than the other laws because it can't be altered by a simple majority of the members agreeing with the alterations). These people are the Members of the Parliament, who are elected by the citizens of the state and meet to discuss matters concerning the state.
The Executive has the responsibility to apply the rules which the Legislative defines. The Executive is controlled by the members of the Government, also elected by the citizens of the state. The government is controlled by the...