Constructivism

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June 1 Last Lecture, “Continue to Marxism” , ”Constructivism”

The international-ization of Marxist Ideas  Marx's key work Capital focuses on the development and characteristics of 19th Century British capitalism.  In 20th Century, a number of scholars developed Marx's ideas and on capitalism's trans-border character, in particular imperialism. Trotsky for example argued that the level of development of any particular state would be affected by its relations with others. • Sooo state could develop independently within a capitalist system of stttiL • However, this devefaroent wifl not be even. Some would evelop faste thin others.

• Entered a new stage (the highest and final stage) with the development of monopoly capitalism. • A dominant core is exploiting a leas developed periphery

The internationalization of Marxist Ideas  So according to Lenin, with the development of core and periphery, there cannot be a harmony of interests between all workers.  The capitalists of the core can pasify the their own working class through the further exploitation of the periphery.  The Latin American Dependency School developed Lenin's ideas on core and periphery.

The internationalization of Marxist Ideas Rosa Luxemburg also extended these analyses. • She claimed that Western capitalism emerged within and alongside pre¬capitalist sets of relations. • Capitalism actually continued its growth on pre-capitalist societies. • These provided markets for goods from advanced capitalist countries and sources of cheap labour. Lenin showed himself up within this discussion. • 1917. • Marx. He wrote "Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism" in He claimed that the capitalism changed character since Dependency School and Its Theory  This school claims that sources flow from a "periphery" of poor and underdeveloped states to a "core" of wealthy states.  In this relation between the poor and the wealthy, the wealthy enriches at the expense of the poor.  Poor states are impoverished and rich ones enriched by the way the poor States are integrated into the "world system."  It is a reaction to the modernization theory, which claims that all societies progress through similar stages of development.

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June 1 Last Lecture, “Continue to Marxism” , ”Constructivism”

Dependency School and Its Theory • Dependency theory argues that underdeveloped countries are not merely primitive versions of developed countries, but have unique features of their own. • More importantly, they are in the situation of being the weaker members in a world market economy.  It believes that underdeveloped countries needed to reduce their connectedness with the World market so that they can pursue a path more in keeping with their own needs, less dictated by external pressures.

World Systems Theory • Andrew Gunter Frank and Henrique Fernando developed the Dependency School's ideas and made analyses to show how the development of less industrialized countries was directly "dependent" on the more advanced capitalist societies. • The theory became popular especially during 1960s and 1970s.

• Modernization theory was in trouble these days because of the continuing widespread poverty on the world.  Many dependency theorists advocate social revolution as an effective means to the reduction of economic disparities in the world system

Dependency School and Its Theory • Raul Prebisch for example claimed that countries in the periphery were suffering as a result of what he called 'the declining terms of trade". • He suggested that the price of manufactured goods increased more rapidly than that of raw materials. • So, year by year, it requires more tons of coffee to pay for a refrigerator. • As a result of their reliance on primary goods, countries of the periphery become poorer relative to the core.  This is known as the Singer-Prebisch thesis- 1949 (Hans Singer and Raul Prebisch) World Systems Theory  It is particularly assocciated with the...
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