The exam will be a mixture of matching, definitions, short answer, essay, and ‘other’ questions. Suggestions on where to focus your preparations are given below:
• What are the 2 major forms of modern overexploitation? o Overfishing
▪ Fishery- fishing for a specific species
• Populations have dropped so significantly that fisheries are stopping o Bushmeat
▪ The killing of tropical terrestrial animals for their meat and then selling this meat ▪ Usually takes place in rural, third world areas so it is hard to enforce laws on. ▪ With exploitation rates rising, these targeted species face the potential for extinction • List and describe the types of overexploitation
▪ Selling wildlife for profit
▪ Market for wild products
▪ Wealth, money changing hands, more wildlife to sell = more $ • i.e. rhino horn sold for ivory
▪ domestic substitutes not as desirable
• wild caught salmon more desirable than farm raised ▪ increasing rarity increases value
▪ wild resources are communal- tragedy of the commons ▪ wild resources are remote- difficult to police a lot of acres of native ▪ capital to purchase technology- enterprises has $ to make them more efficient at harvesting resources ▪ currency disparities
• resource is cheap in one country but can sell it for more in another, can make a lot of money o Subsistence
▪ Hunt because you need to live off of it (i.e. Eskimos hunting whales) • Most rural folk do this to an extent ▪ Subsistence exploitation has increased with increased population size o Recreational
▪ Use of wildlife for entertainment
▪ Problems: sport hunting and fishing
• Management of habitat
• Stocking for sport fishing
▪ Negatives with ecotourism
• Frighten animals, disrupt breeding, trampling plants and animals, divers touching coral ▪ Sport fishing and hunting pays for most conservation efforts ▪ Population control, hunters/fishers keep populations in check o Incidental
▪ Incidentally exploiting other species when trying to catch another species • I.e. tuna fishing, killing dolphins, trying to reduce this impact? • Common in fishing industries
▪ Roads, fences, livestock overgrazing, pets- housecats love killing things ▪ Human actions indirectly killing other organisms • What is subsistence exploitation?
o Why should we be concerned with this?
o Type of resource exploitation, most often used by rural people, in which wildlife is used to directly meet some portion of an individual’s personal needs o Wildlife or wildlife products are used to meet personal needs (clothing, food, shelter) • What is recreational exploitation? Incidental exploitation? Indirect exploitation? Provide examples. • What are the consequences of overexploitation?
o Small population problems (genetic drift, demographic stochasticity) o extinction
o Population effects?
▪ Age and sex structure effects?
• Effects reproductive capacity
• Preferential hunting of males leads to low #’s and low reproductive rates, lower female pregnancy ▪ Genetic structure?
• Change the genes of the population by selecting the...