Concepts, Principles, Theories

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MPK1023:
Management and
Administration of TVE

CONCEPTS vs.
PRINCIPLES vs.
THEORY
PM Dr WILFREDO H. LIBUNAO

IMPORTANCE OF
IMPORTANCE
THEORIES
Theories are constructed to give an explanation of
phenomena (Stam, 2000).
According to Denzin (1970), there are three
functions of a theory:
1. Permitting organization of descriptions,
2. leading to explanation, and
3. furnishing the basis for prediction of future
events.

Importance of Theories…cont’d:
In a nutshell, theories:
- Tell us what we are doing
- Tell us why we do things
- Not how to do things
- It help us better understand the
process
- Will enable us to predict what is
going to happen in the future

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Importance of Theories…cont’d:

Elements of Theory:
• Concepts
• Generalizations
• Assumptions
Purposes of Theory:
• Provide an explanation of how
things generally work
• Guide research
• Guide practice

Importance of Theories…cont’d:
Hypotheses:
• Conjectural statements that explain relationships.
• Use to test theories.
• Guide research
Scientific Knowledge:
• Propositions supported by systematic research.

Purpose of Science: To test theory and to
provide reliable explanation.

Theoretical System

Concepts

Generalizations
Assumptions

Concepts

Variables

Hypotheses

Variables
Empirical
Testing

Principles
© Hoy, 2008, © Hoy 2003

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IMPORTANCE OF CONCEPTS
• What is a concept?
• Why is it important?
• How is it different from principles and
theories?
• Is concept important in management?

The Elephant
Six blind sages were shown an
elephant and met to discuss their
experience. “It's wonderful,” said
the first, “an elephant is like a rope:
slender and flexible.” “No, no, not at
all,” said the second, “an elephant is
like a tree, sturdily planted on the
ground.” “Nonsense,” said the third,
“an elephant is like a wall.”
“Incredible,” said the fourth, “an
elephant is a tube filled with water.”
“What a strange and piecemeal beast
this is,” said the fifth. “Strange
indeed,” said the sixth, “but there
must be some underlying harmony.
Let us investigate the matter
further.”
Adapted from a traditional Hindu fable

IMPORTANCE OF CONCEPT
IMPORTANCE
• A concept is a mental abstraction which allows
generalization and the extension of knowledge
from some known objects to others unknown.
• A concept is formed by taking a number of
similar entities and deciding what makes them
similar in an important way.
• Concepts are bearers of meaning, as opposed
to agents of meaning. A single concept can be
expressed by any number of languages.

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Importance of concept…cont’d
• In other words concepts are essentially
hypotheses that will become invalid, should they
fail to fit in some critical way the empirical reality
it is claimed they represent.
• The word ‘concept’ refers to a class of acts,
thoughts, activities, processes, or structures.

• In science its concepts drive research,
steering inquiry according to the meaning
of each.

Importance of concept…cont’d

• Concepts lead to new directions
and new ideas through
disturbances or provocations in
usual thinking processes.
• Concepts are keys to change
and improvement.

IMPORTANCE OF PRINCIPLE
PRINCIPLE – is considered as a law, a doctrine, a
policy, or a deep-seated beliefs which governs the
deepconduct of various types of human activities.
In the field of administration and supervision,
PRINCIPLE is accepted as a fundamental truth.
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