Michael W. Riggs and Aaron W. Hughey
Abstract: It is important that education and training programmes align with the needs of the professions they are designed to support. The culinary arts and hospitality industry is a vocational area that needs to be examined more closely to ensure that the skills and competencies taught are those that will actually be needed when students matriculate from career preparation programmes. This study compared the self-assessed leadership roles and managerial competencies of hospitality students and hospitality management professionals in employment. Using the Competing Values Framework (CVF) as a theoretical framework, eight leadership roles and 24 managerial competencies were examined in an effort to identify similarities and differences between the two groups. The authors found limited signiﬁcant differences between the perceptions of the two groups; overall, the ranking of leadership roles and managerial competencies by the two populations were very similar. Implications for academic culinary arts and hospitality programmes are also presented, together with recommendations for future inquiry. Keywords: leadership and managerial competencies; competing values; culinary arts; hospitality industry Dr Michael W. Riggs is Executive Chef and Associate Professor of Culinary Arts, Bowling Green Technical College, 1845 Loop Street, Bowling Green, KY 42101, USA. E-mail: email@example.com. Professor Aaron W. Hughey is with the Department of Counseling and Student Affairs, TPH 417-D, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101, USA. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The management skills and leadership characteristics demanded by today’s employers in the hospitality and culinary arts sectors are very different from those of the past (Shivpuri and Kim, 2004; Umbreit, 1993). Hospitality and culinary arts educators are preparing students for what some regard as one of the most
demanding professions in the world (Barren and Maxwell, 1993). Research suggests a gap may exist between the leadership skills and managerial competencies of college students studying hospitality management and culinary arts and the managerial competencies and leadership skills needed to be
INDUSTRY & HIGHER EDUCATION Vol 25, No 2, April 2011, pp 109–118, doi: 10.5367/ihe.2011.0033
Perceptions of management roles in the hospitality and culinary industry
successful in the industry (Hertzman and Stefanelli, 2005; Sim, 1994). In order for hospitality management and culinary arts programmes to be successful in preparing the future leaders and managers of this industry, it is important to examine this potential gap further and, if found to exist, for it to be closed. While researching management proﬁciency in the United Kingdom, Johnson and Winterton (1999) concluded that theories, concepts, and tacit knowledge gained from performing tasks must be merged together as part of the academic experience. Emenheiser et al (1998) commented that it is crucial for entry-level graduates to be educated in the areas of management and leadership: ‘Identifying these skills and characteristics is critical for the success of the managers and the business’ (p 54). What is at stake is signiﬁcant. Colleges and universities may be failing to prepare graduates adequately for the demands and expectations of industry (Robinson, 2006). Atkins (1999) stated that ‘Over the last decade there has been a steady stream of reports and papers urging the higher education sector to take key, core transferable and employability skills into the heart of students’ learning experiences’ (as cited in Robinson, 2006, p 3). There is a feeling among some industry employers that educators are neither adequately nor successfully developing graduates who possess the employability skills needed to compete in today’s complex hospitality industry...