BALINGIT, Ma. Alexandra Z.
University of the Philippines – Manila
COMPARISON OF THE BOOKS
Fundamentals of Political Science by Florentino G. Ayson and Dolores Aligada-Reyes ang librong napili ko upang gamiting tulong sa pag-aaral ng PolSci11. Si Ayson ay kasalukuyang Political Science professor sa Far Eastern University (FEU) at nagtapos bilang Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) sa Political Science (Benemeritus) sa Unibersidad ng Santo Tomas (UST) at Master of Arts (M.A.) sa Political Science at Bachelor of Arts (Cum Laude) sa FEU. Habang si Aligada-Reyes naman ay kasalukuyang Chairman ng Departamento ng Araling Panlipunan sa FEU.
Fundamentals of Political Science (FPS). On the first chapter of Ayson and Aligada-Reyes’ book, they described Political Science as is the study of state in all its elements, aspects, and relationships. These elements include: (1) government; (2) organs; and (3) institutions – through which the state functions. It also includes (1) certain aspects of human behavior, and (2) how governments and the people conduct themselves in a political society. But also, as the book says, to modern political scientist, the definition is far more beyond the traditional connotation. It is also a systematic study of politics – “an attempt by systematic analysis to discover in the confusing detail whatever principles may exist of wider and more general significance” – NOT ONLY about the State, its Organs, and Institutions BUT ALSO other institutions or polities as well such as (1) political attitudes of people and their leader, (2) controversial issues and other aspects concerning the States’ (a) operation, (b) powers, and (c) functions. They also stated in the book that a political scientist is deeply involved in the study of politics. Example: Niccolo Machiavelli (great political philosopher of the Italian Renaissance) = Politician turned political scientist and Woodrow Wilson, US President == political scientist turned politician. They claim that STATE is the biggest political organization which has the greatest power within a territory and that POWER is sovereign over all other powers and such power is exercised by the government. Therefore, GOVERNMENT of the STATE is the very CENTER of politics and that of political science. In this chapter, they also discussed “GOVERNMENT ► (institutions that make up the State) ► (1) Executive; (2) Legislature; (3) Judiciary; (4) Local Governments, and other government institutions ► are involved in politics.”
Also, cases are given in this book to determine whether a person is a political scientist or a politician. The term “election” was replaced by “suffrage” in this book. Stated in the book, that this is one of the elements of modern democracy: that is is inherent in the concept that sovereignty resides in the people, which means that political authority, or the power to govern, emanates from them. Thus, the right to govern within the context of democracy is derived from the people through the instrument of suffrage.
As discussed in this book, there are five different theories about suffrage: (1) the theory that suffrage is an attribute of citizenship, (2) the theory that suffrage is a vested privilege, (3) the theory that suffrage is an abstract or natural right, (4), the ethical theory, and (5) suffrage as a government function. There are other classifications, namely: individualistic theory, collectivist theory, and dualistic theory. This theories were not discussed in Haywood’s book.
Every nation-state has distinct legal system of its own. However, most of the legal systems in the world today have their own roots in two great legal systems: the Civil Lay and the Common Law. This legal systems were also not discussed in the classroom (using Haywood’s book), so I guess I have to discuss it here on my paper in order to help to our teacher. The Civil Law system as a legal system came into being during the middle ages....
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