Community Health

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Ch. 17 Objectives
1. Describe health promotion, illness prevention, and illness care in the context of the ecological model and social determinants of health (SDOH). With the ecological model, we look at the environment of the individual and how the two interact together. The environment consists of peers, family, community, infrastructure within the community, etc. All these things impact the individual’s perception of their health and they outcomes they will accept for their health. Social Determinants of Health (SDOH) are a list of 10 items that are basically psychosocial influences that have helped mold the health of the individual. SDOH:

The Social Gradient – the socioeconomic gradient of society Stress – stressful circumstances
Early Life – the impact of early development and education Social Exclusion – hardship, resentment, poverty, social exclusion, and discrimination Work – workplace stress
Unemployment – lack of income and stress affects health
Social Support – friendship and good social relations positively affect health Addiction – drug addictions negatively affect health
Food – access to healthy food
Transport – healthy transport such as walking and bicycling When looking at health promotion, illness prevention, and illness care in the context of these two factors, we have to look at the SDOH that impact the individual and the environment they reside in. We cannot just change the individual but we have to change the environment and their SDOH if we want them to have positive health. 2. Analyze participatory approaches and the interrelationships among communities, populations, and the interprofessional health care providers in the application of health promotion strategies. So, when a community comes together with different professional healthcare providers to achieve a common goal, many of the community’s health goals are achieved. But the best way to approach this is to get community leaders and its citizens involved. The healthcare providers act as consultants to the community. By doing it this way, the healthcare providers must assess what is needed, health-wise, in the community and what the community wants for its health goals. The community will generate their list of health needs and then the providers will help with the planning of interventions and the evaluations of these health goals. Furthermore, the healthcare providers will also make their own list of health priorities for the community. However, if the healthcare providers health priorities for the community are not in sync with the healthcare priorities of the community, then those goals of the healthcare providers are deemed as secondary. Often these secondary goals will be addressed with education to the community so that the community will one day see them as a priority. With partnerships like this, communities are much more likely to adhere and achieve health promotion goals. 3. Describe evidence-based practice at multiple levels of the client system: individual, family aggregate, and community. The client system is a multilevel approach to healthcare. In this model, there is the Individual level at the base, the next encompassing level is the Family, the next encompassing level above Family is the Aggregate, and the last level that encompasses all the levels is the Community. Now, when we think of health promotion, illness prevention, and illness care, we need to focus on all these levels. Think of it as a macro- to micro- approach. The Community level encompasses many things such as the people of the community, the infrastructure of the community, the environment of the community, the resources of the community, etc. If we make a change at that higher level the effects will trickle down to the lower levels, thus affecting the Individual level. For example, if we want to do some illness prevention on the Individual level then it would be best to change things in the Community level to help accommodate that...
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