Community Development

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THE FAMILY AND COMMUNITY Week 1
Experience of family in the Jamaican context and impact of family structures and patterns on community development

WHAT IS A FAMILY?
A Family is: “a kinship unit, essentially of primary kin of the household head, but it allows for extension, either patrilineal or matrilineal.” (UNESCO, 1992) There are times when they do not share the same residence but the family still exists as a Unit

WHAT IS A HOUSEHOLD?
A household is: “a commensal (share the same food or eat together) and residential unit, and may consist of not only primary relatives but distant and non-distant family” (UNESCO, 1992)

FAMILY
Family has different meanings for different persons: • families may be comprised of several generations (grandmother, mother etc.) • include various households • might change as a result of divorce, remarriage and children moving away from home

TYPES OF FAMILY
• Nuclear Family a married man & woman and their biological children.

TYPES OF FAMILY
• Extended family Grandparents, aunts and uncles play a critical role in the rearing of the children. These relatives might not necessarily share the same residence with the child/children. They might assist the parents in the upbringing of the children or rear the children in the absence of their parents.

TYPES OF FAMILY
• Adoptive family This is where one or more children have been adopted. Children that were given up at birth, abandoned or their biological parents were unable to care for them. They then find a permanent home with an adoptive family.

TYPES OF FAMILY
• Step Family The increasing divorce and remarriage rates allow for the uniting of two families (step families).

TYPES OF FAMILY
• Single parent family  This can be either a father or a mother who is singly responsible for raising a child.  A single parent cares for one or more children without the help from the other biological parent.  Historically, single-parent families was as a result of the death of a spouse. However, single-parent homes are increasing as married couples divorce or as unmarried couples have children.

JAMAICAN FAMILY PATTERNS
Within the Jamaican society, the family pattern is predominantly categorized by: 1. Married: male and female who are legally married and living together in the same household 2. Common-law: man and woman not legally married but they have sexual relations and share the same household 3. Visiting: man and woman having sexual relationship but they are not married neither do they live together

JAMAICAN FAMILY PATTERNS cont.
Nuclear Family • In sectors of the society the nuclear family is seen as a male and female entering into a legally binding contract (marriage). They then start a family which might lead to the bearing of children • For many persons in the society, the nuclear family is the ideal type of family. However, it is more evident in the upper and middle classes and among all classes of the Chinese and East Indian ethnic groups.

JAMAICAN FAMILY PATTERNS
• Among the lower/working classes there are legal and non legal sexual unions. The latter are often informal and in some cases, the male and female partners do not live together.

JAMAICAN FAMILY PATTERNS
Roberts and Sinclair indicates that the three dominant family patterns is an indicator of the three stages of the mating pattern that is demonstrated in Jamaican families. • Visiting Unions - first ten years of the family cycle (women up to 25 years of age) • Common law or legal union – after visiting unions there is a gradual transition to common law and or legal union.

JAMAICAN FAMILY PATTERNS
NOTE: • By age 45 many Jamaican women are either in common law relationships or are married.

FEATURES OF JAMAICAN FAMILY ORGANISATIONS
The features of family organizations in Jamaica are inclusive of: • Women play a central role in the households • Marginalisation of men and them not standing up to their responsibility • High number...
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