* number and type of employer and union groups who are party to the negotiations and are bound by resultant collective agreement. * Influence interactions bw parties, influence types of issues brought to the table, level of conflict and incidence of strikes. * Canadian: decentralized, negotiations most often occurring bw a single employer and single union * Employer operates at one location only, one unionized establishment, different unions at different locations. * Europe: centralized, master agreements often negotiated on an industry wide basis. * Pattern bargaining: terms of the first, or target, contract are used as a pattern for subsequent collective agreement. * Another common structure: single-employer, multi-establishment ,single-union: negotiation of a single collective agreement across several different workplaces by same employer and union. * Offering economies of scale for bother employers and unions * Less common: single-employer, single-establishment, multi-union negotiating partnership bw two or more unions within the same workplace, when production workers represented by an industrial union negotiate together with maintenance. * Single-employer, multi-establishment, multi-union: railway industry where operating union coalitions bargain as a group with each of the major railways * Multi-employer, multi-establishment, single-union: found in industries characterized by large numbers of relatively small employers and single dominant industrial or craft union (trucking, fishing, forestry sectors) * Multi-employer, multi-establishment, multi-union: construction industry, imposed by gov in a bid to bring labor peace following disputes – bargaining conducted through certified employers association rather than ind employers.
Reasons for Canada’s Decentralized Structures
* provincial jurisdiction over most labor relations matters – makes national level bargaining difficult, except in interprovincial industries under federal jurisdiction. * Labor boards’ tendency to determine bargaining units according to community of interest criteria that favors creation of small, homogenous bargaining units rather than large ones * Attitude of North American employers, oppose broader based bargaining that would require them to surrender their control over bargaining to an employers association. * Whipsaw: either a union or an employer attempts to leapfrog, or improve upon, another settlement using it as the minimum it is willing to accept * Increased competition (Trade liberalization) led to breakdown of centralized bargaining structures and pattern bargaining arrangements * Can no longer meet industry standard and remain competitive with centralized, withdraw * Auto industry – still centralized; integrated continental market in auto products while maintaining previous levels of Canadian production and employment * Corporatism: social arrangement in which bodies serve as political representatives and play a critical role in decision making – participate is tripartite; unions, private sector corps and gov.
Effects of Different Bargaining Structures
* good times, private sector unions favor decentralized bargaining structures * when demand for labor is high and employers are interested in maintaining labor peace, unions whipsaw employers – use one settlement with one employer as...