Cold War Outline
1. 1945-A Critical Year-
a) Roosevelt met with Stalin and Churchill at Yalta to work out the future of Germany and Poland. They agreed on the division of Germany into American, British, French, and Soviet occupation zones. b) The League of Nations, founded at after WW1, had failed largely because the United States refused to join. This time, policymakers got congressional support for the UN. 2. Conflicting Postwar Goals-
a) Tensions over Poland illustrated the differing views of the world held by American and Soviet leaders. Americans had fought to bring democracy and economic opportunity to the conquered nations of Europe and Asia. b) One way to establish satellite nations, countries subject to Soviet domination, on the western borders of the Soviet Union that would serve as a buffer zone against attacks. 3. Soviets Tighten Their Hold-
a) The Soviet Union quickly gained political control over nations that the Red Army had freed from the Nazis. b) In spite of the Soviet successes occurring all round them, two countries did manage to maintain a degree of independence from the Soviet Union (Finland and Yugoslavia). 4. The Iron Curtain-
a) Churchill also called on Americans to help keep Stalin from enclosing any more nations behind the iron curtain of Communist domination and oppression. These two speeches of 1946- by Stalin and Churchill- set the tone for the Cold War, the competition that developed between the United States and the Soviet Union for power and influence in the world. b) The rivalry stopped just short of a “hot” war- a direct military engagement- between the two competing nations. 5. Containment-
a) Later, in an anonymous journal article, Kennan warned that the Soviets had “no real faith in the possibility of a permanently happy coexistence of the Socialists and capitalist worlds” and that they also believed in the inevitable triumph of communist. b) The American policy of containment...
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