• Evaluate the role and ideologies of Kennedy, Nixon, Khrushchev, Mao, Castro, and Ho. • Analyze the Vietnam War and its place in the broader Cold War. • Compare two proxy conflicts in two different regions. • Analyze the role of détente.
• Analyze political developments in China (Great Leap Forward, Cultural Revolution) • Discuss the Sino-Soviet split.
• Evaluate the process and effectiveness of various arms control regimes. • Examine internal dissent in the communist world.
• Determine to what extent the Soviet Union and its satellites collapsed or were forced into defeat.
Compare two proxy conflicts in two different regions.
Proxy War: a war instigated by a major power that does not itself participate
• 1950-1953; Truman and Eisenhower
• Had been taken over before, constantly being invaded and too weak to fight for their independence • War of attrition (push boundaries), conventional war, much more like WWI • Did not make it nuclear because it WAS proxy
• Soviets got involved first, China gave aid
• Were not given a blank check, actually told to stop
• America engaged because of the Domino Theory; to contain Communism in independent nations; fought against ideology not individual o Did not come in until August 12
• Korea was split because Soviet and US forces met halfway up peninsula after WWII and stayed there • US and USSR changed leaders (Truman to Eisenhower, Stalin to Khrushchev), while China and Korea stayed the same • Korean leaders
o Kim Il-Sung – North, Communist
o Synghman Rhee – South, Democratic, Christian, US supported just because he was anti-Communist although he was authoritarian • US gave supplies before sending troops
• Divided along the 38th parallel
• Ended in an armistice and ceasefire with concessions for both sides, North and South Korea still divided today
• 1955-1975; Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon
• Divided along the 17th parallel
• Just US got involved
• Had been taken over before (French Indochina, Japan) and wanted independence but was unable to claim it directly after WWII • More guerilla warfare, first televised war, Americans did napalm, agent orange, carpet bombing, rolling thunder • Nuclear warfare was unnecessary, MAD
• Vietnamese leaders
o Ho Chih Minh – North Communist
o Ngo Dinh Diem – South, Democratic, Christian, US was embarrassed with him also because he was a “brutal dictator” • American engaged because of the Domino Theory; to contain Communism in independent nations; fought against ideology not individual • Fighting two different wars
o Vietnamese fighting for nationalism and independence, total war o US was for containment, limited war
• United States pulled out 1973 under ceasefire with concessions for both sides, North invaded South
• Both had been taken over multiple times before the war and wanted their independence o Korea was promised independence in Cairo Conference and never got it (1943); were not consulted in Potsdam after being divided o Viet Minh and Viet Cong – product of nationalist tendencies • The US joined both wars because of the Domino Theory: they were trying to contain Communism in “independent” nations; fought against ideology not individual • US did not really like the leaders they were supporting, they were just anti-Communist • US believed both were limited wars, while the opposite side it was more of an important war (absolute war for Koreans and Vietnamese); US did not use all resources or troops • Both ended with US withdrawing before the conflict was over; ceasefire, considered unwinnable o Korea: stalemate FOREVER at 38th parallel
o Vietnam: “peace with honor” but still left with North still invading...