Cold War and a New Western World

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CH. 28: Cold War and a New Western World (1945-1965)
I. Development of the Cold War
A. Confrontation of the Superpowers
1. Two Superpowers stemmed from their different historical perspectives and their irreconcilable political ambitions U.S and the Soviet Union were the heirs of that European tradition of Power Politics sought to extend their way of life to the rest of the world 2. The Truman Doctrine:

a. President Harry Truman alarmed by British weakness and the possibility of soviet expansion into the eastern Mediterranean, responded with the Truman Doctrine: said that the U. S. would provide money to countries that claimed they were threatened by Communist expansion 3. The Marshall Plan:

a. June 1947, The Marshall Plan intended to rebuild prosperity and stability, this program included $13 billion for the economic recovery of war-torn Europe 4. In an article in foreign affairs in July 1947, George Kennan, American diplomat with much knowledge of Soviet affairs advocated a policy of Containment against further aggressive Soviet moves, Kennan favored the “adroit and vigilant application of Counter-force at a series of constantly shifting geographical and political points, corresponding to the shifts and maneuvers of Soviet policy” soviet blockade of Berlin in 1948, containment of the Soviet Union became formal American policy 5. New Military Alliances

a. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO):
1. Formed in April 1949, when Belgium, Britain, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, and Portugal signed a treaty with the U.S and Canada 2. Powers agreed to provide mutual assistance if any one of them was attacked 6. Eastern European states. In 1949, formed the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) for Economic cooperation 7. 1955, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union organized a formal military alliance in the Warsaw Pact. B. Globalization of the Cold War

1. The Korean War
a. August 1945, the Soviet Union and the United States agreed to divide the country into two separate occupation zones at the 38th parallel planned to hold national elections, restoration of peace to reunify Korea under an independent government U.S – Soviet relations deteriorated, 2 separate government emerged in Korea, a Communist one in the north and an anti- Communist one in the south b. Tensions between the two governments ran high, on June 25, 1950 apparent approval of Joseph Stalin, North Korean troops invaded South Korea under the command of General Douglas MacArthur marched northward across the 38th parallel with the aim of unifying Korea under a single noncommunist 2. The 1st Vietnam War

a. Negotiations broke down between Ho Chi Minh’s government and the returning French, war broke out in December 1946 b. 3 years, Vietminh increased in size and effectiveness, Ho Chi Minh’s fought against the French and became entangled in the Cold War as both the U.S and the new communist government in China c. China provided military assistance to the Vietminh to protect, borders from hostile forces d. Americans supported the French but pressured the French government to prepare for an eventual transition to a non-Communist government in Vietnam e. Geneva Conference in 1954, the French public tired of fighting the “dirty war” in Indochina, agreed to a peace settlement with Ho Chi Minh’s Vietminh f. Vietnam was divided into a northern communist half known as the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and a non-Communist southern half based in Saigon known as the Republic of Vietnam 3. Escalating of the Cold War

a. Central Treaty Organization (CENTO): Great Britain, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey, and the U.S was intended to prevent the Soviet Union from expanding at the expense of its southern neighbors b. Australia, Britain, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, the...
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