Introduction to Psychology
Describe the difference between personal and situational attributions in explaining behavior. What is the Fundamental Attribution Error, and how is it related to these types of attributions?
Personal attributions- also know as internal or dispositional attributions, are explanations that refer to things within people, such as abilities, traits, moods, or efforts.
Situational attributions- external attributions, refer to outside events, such as the weather, accidents, or people’s actions
Fundamental attribution error- we tend to overemphasize the importance of personality traits and underestimate the importance or enviromental reasons of situation. Ex. Women fighting to board train
Explain and give examples of causes of interpersonal attraction, including proximity, familiarity, similarity, reciprocity, arousal, reactance, and physical attractiveness.
Interpersonal attraction-feeling drawn to another person
Proximity-we tend to like people that are close to us
Familiarity- we like mirrored images, and the more we are familiar with a person the more we like them
Similarity- birds of feather flock together, more similar person’s attitudes are to our own, the more we like the person. We need social validation of our beliefs and characteristics.
Reciprocity- we like those who like us
Arousal- when we are aroused, we are more likely to be attracted to someone Ex. Dutton and Aron bridge experiment or Horror Movies if your date doesn’t like horror movies and you take her to one then she is less likely to like you
Reactance- Romeo and Juliet effect. If someone like your parents tells you that they don’t like or don’t want you to be around your girlfriend, the more you will love them because we don’t like limits put on our freedom.
Physical Attractiveness- we like to find people that have similar physical attractiveness to us. Beautiful people are seen to be happier and more successful and more people are drawn to them.
What is the mere exposure effect?
Increased familiarity usually increases liking.
What is the difference between conformity, compliance, and obedience?
Conformity-change in behavior due to the influence of others. People conform due to the need to be right. Look at people around you to behave correctly in the appropriate setting(look around to see if you should tip)
Compliance- you do it when someone asks you too
Obedience- do what you are told to by superiors or authority
Stanley Milgram study with shock and authority
Explain the matching hypothesis in physical attractiveness.
People tend to pair off with someone who is similar in physical attractiveness
What is the “What is beautiful is good” stereotype? How can it impact behavior and decisions?
Attractive people are judged to be happier and more successful and more people are drawn to them
Describe some evolutionary reasons why we may believe physical attractiveness is important in mate selection.
Compare and contrast implicit and explicit norms, giving examples of each.
Explicit – things that are stated very upfront; don’t drink and drive, regular laws
Implicit – you realize that it’s just part of a community; different friend groups use different word phrases
Describe how the elevator video that we watched in class demonstrates principles of social influence.
People look around them to see if it is socially acceptable and will follow if the the group does
Define and describe informational social influence and normative social influence. Be sure to describe Sherif’s and Asch’s classic studies on conformity and norms.
Sherif - auto-kinetic effect- put people in a dark room and tell them and the light moves and listen to the other people and they conform to the answers of the other people. They are estimated guesses were close to the others.
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