WHAT IS CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT?
* Administration or direction of activities with special reference to such problems as discipline, democratic techniques, use and care of supplies and reference materials, the physical features of classroom, general housekeeping, and the social relationships of pupils.
* Good classroom management establishes an atmosphere which permits activities to be carried on efficiently and economically, maximizing the time, effort and energy of both the teacher and students.
Why is Classroom Management an integral part of teaching?
According to Ornstein, in order to teach, one must be able to manage the students under him. No matter how much potential one has as a teacher, if he is unable to control the students in his/her classroom, little learning will take place. Classroom management is an integral part of teaching and techniques of managing students can and must be acquired by the teacher.
Inadequate classroom management and discipline are widely considered by the public to be a major educational problem.
SEVEN (7) APPROACHES
1.) ASSERTIVE APPROACH
The assertive approach to classroom management expects teachers to specify rules of behavior and consequences for disobeying them and to communicate these rules and consequences clearly. The assertive model holds that the teachers must establish firm management at the beginning of the year by:
1.a) clarifying appropriate expectations of responsible behavior 1.b) identifying existing or potential discipline problems
1.c) deciding on negative and positive consequences of behavior that fit the students and situation 1.d) learning how to follow through and implements these consequences.
2.) BUSINESS-ACADEMIC APPROACH
Emphasizes the organization and management of students as they engage an academic work. Task orientation, that is, focusing on the business-like and orderly accomplishment of academic work, leads a clear set of procedures for students and teacher to follow.
Three (3) major categories
2.1) Clear communication of Assignments and Work Requirement The teacher must establish and explain clearly to students work assignment, features of work, standards to be met, and procedures.
a.) Instruction for assignments
b.) Standards for form, neatness and due dates
c.) Procedures for absent students
2.2) Monitoring Student Work
Monitoring student work helps teacher to detect students who are having difficulty and to encourage students to keep working. a.) Monitoring group work
b.) Monitoring individual work
c.) Monitoring completion of work
d.) Maintaining records of student work.
2.3) Feedback to Students
Frequent, immediate, and specific feedback is important for enhancing academic monitoring and managerial procedures. Work in progress, homework, completed assignments, tests, and other work should be checked properly. a.) Attention to problems.
b.) Attention to good work.
3.) BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION APPROACH
It spends little time on personal history of students or on searching for the reasons for a particular problem. The basic principles:
a.) Behavior is shaped by its consequences.
b.) Behavior is strengthened by immediate reinforcers.
c.) Behavior is strengthened by systematic reinforcement (positive or negative). d.) Students respond better to positive reinforcers than they do to punishment. e.) When a student is not rewarded for appropriate or adaptive behavior, inappropriate or maladaptive behavior may become increasingly dominant and will be utilized to obtain reinforcement f.) Constant reinforcement
g.) Once the behavior has been learned, it is best maintained through intermittent reinforcement
4.) Group Managerial Approach (based 0n Jacob Kounin’s research)
He emphasizes the importance of responding immediately to group student behavior that might be inappropriate or undesirable in order to...