Civil War Notes

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1. Examine the social, political, and economic impact of civil war on the South, its values, and its people.  Social:
* Increased urban growth
* Cities grew because of the shift towards manufacturing, growth of bureaucratic agencies to oversee manufacturing, RR, shipping, tax collection. * Urban growth resulted in the expansion of construction jobs, transportation developments * Changed roles for women

* Headed households and performed men’s work
* Managed or cultivated fields
* Women working as clerks, a traditionally male job, especially in Confederate bureaucracy * Schoolteachers
* Found role in the war effort as nurses
* Mass poverty, food shortages
* Mass poverty caused by runaway inflation
* Enactment of tax-in-kind as a result
* Stirred class conflict when planters refused to cooperate * Families suffered because primary breadwinner was drafted * Class conflict
* Yeomen are waking up to the concept of class-consciousness.  They are asked to sacrifice more than the plantation class southerners (“Rich man’s war, poor man’s fight”).  * Government policies favoring elite:

* Planters can be excused from conscription if they own more than 20 slaves (twenty-slave law) * A draftee can be excused if he can hire a substitute * Wealthy are sacrificing luxuries while the poor are giving up necessities * Planters refused to pay taxes

* Reality of war challenged southern sense of individuality with strict military discipline and deprivation.  Political:
* Centralization of political power
* This time of crisis witnessed a dramatic increase in the executive power in the Confederacy.  Davis imposed martial law and suspended habeas corpus * The first conscription law (draft) ever in the...
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