Civil War Lecture Notes

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01/06/2011

The Road to War

1. Sectional Armistice of 1850
President Taylor adopted a form of popular sovereignty when dealing with the issue of slavery. He essentially made California a free state. a. Proposal (clay)
i. Henry Clay was very weary of this crisis. He created a new compromise that challenged Taylor’s leadership of the Whig party. ii. In January of 1850, Clay got Daniel Webster to support him in creating a new comprehensive settlement to all the political issues regarding slavery. It was 8 resolutions long. iii. One of them was let California come to the Union on its own terms regarding slavery iv. Set up territorial governments outside of California without any rules regarding slavery. v. Set the boundary of Texas at its present limits. vi. Thought the Federal government should take over the public tax debt of Texas. vii. Abolish the “slave trade” in the district of Columbia viii. Let slavery continue as an institution in DC as long as it continued in Maryland ix. The Interstate slave trade is immune from congressional interference x. Write a fugitive slave law

b. Debate
xi. Calhoun discussed social and cultural facts that all Americans are connected xii. Argued for a unification of north and south
xiii. Daniel Webster delivered a peace offering and an appeal for conciliation xiv. Would pass no legislation that would wound the pride of southern gentlemen xv. William Seward

xvi. Clay offers up an omnibus bill that had the tactical advantage of letting all parties know what they were getting when they voted c. Regrouping (Douglas)
xvii. Douglas relied on manipulating separate blocks: the sectional blocks and the compromise blocks. If the two could get together, then the bill could be passed xviii. In September of 1850, all the bills that modern historians call the compromise of 1850 were passed. xix. One piece of legeslation was to admit California as a free state xx. Texas and New Mexico were organized with out a restriction on slavery, adjusted the New Mexico/Texas boundary, paid texas $10 million for relinquishing part of its territory to New Mexico and set up Utah with popular sovereignty xxi. Fugitive slave act provided federal penalties for people aiding and abetting fugitive slaves. xxii. Abolished slave trade in the district of Columbia d. Evaluation

xxiii. During the final days of this congress the congressmen were celebrating their achievements. xxiv. The evidence shows that southern resistance to the free soil position that if the union were to be preserved the south had to be compensated. xxv. The supreme challenge was delayed, not avoided. xxvi. The decade of 1850-1860 was a period of growth that let the north be better prepared for the coming conflict. xxvii. The North paid very little for a ten year deferral. 2. Translation of National Concerns into Slavery Terms: Case Study, Railroad Promotion e. Pacific Railroad Question

xxviii. Many americans believed that there should be a railroad that ran to the pacific. They believed that the public land should be donated to the rail roads in order for the private company to afford it. xxix. For many local communities, the people in the towns knew that business would improve if the train passed through.

f. Douglas’s Omnibus Bill
xxx. In January and February of 1854 douglas made some consessions in a bill that he was sure would pass in the house and senate xxxi. Southerners wanted something that would ensure popular sovereignty and protect slavery xxxii. Anti slavery democrats who opposed repealing the bill formed the independent democrats xxxiii.

g. Immediate Response to...
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