Ohm’s Law is V = I * R or in some cases I = V / R. The next two laws were established by a German physicist by the name of Gustav Kirchhoff. Kirchhoff’s first law is his voltage law. Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) states that around any loop in a circuit, the voltage rises must equal the voltage drops. The next law that Kirchhoff introduced was his current law. Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL) states that the total current entering a junction must equal the total current leaving the junction. These laws, however, cannot be proven or tested without the aid of a multimeter. A multimeter is an instrument designed to measure electric current, voltage, and usually resistance, typically over several ranges of value. The multimeter has different programs to measure voltage, current, resistance, etc. produced from one of two types of circuits. The first type of circuit is a series circuit. A series circuit is a circuit in which the components are arranged end to end in such a way that the electric current flows through the first component, through the next component, and so on, until it reaches the source again. In contrast, a parallel circuit is a circuit in which the has more than one resistor and has multiple paths to move along. The main purpose of this lab was to prove the laws of Ohm and Kirchhoff. On another note, being able to take part in this lab taught my partner and I the fundamental skills of constructing series and parallel circuit and using a multimeter to calculate the current and voltage of a circuit. I believe that if we only have the basic materials to conduct electricity (such as resistors, alligator clip, cords, a multimeter, and a power source), then we can still prove the that the laws that Ohm and Kirchhoff established are in fact reliable sources for calculating data regarding certain electrical circuits. I’ve reached this hypothesis because Ohm’s laws and Kirchhoff’s two laws are supposed to be laws used...

...WRITING RESEARCH REPORTS
The following set of guidelines provides psychology students at Essex with the basic information
for structuring and formatting reports of research in psychology. During your time here this will be
an invaluable reference. You are encouraged to refer to this document each time you write a labreport.
The writing of laboratory reports is an essential part of any practical module in Psychology. This is
because psychologists (and more generally most scientists) write accounts of their studies using a
standard format, which makes explicit certain aspects of the study. There are two main reasons for
doing this:
(1) Ease of communication: it is easier to find what you want from a study if it
is written in the standard format.
(2) Provision of a precise and complete description: the format makes it clear what
information is important for scientific communication. This information must be provided
in detail. It should be added that many professions now include the skills of technical report
writing, which requires clear, direct and concise
expression, the ability to summarize and present data, and the ability to form
hypotheses and draw valid inferences. Learning to write laboratory reports will provide you
with a valuable and transferable skill.
This guide tells you about the structure and style that is required for a psychology laboratory...

...
Lab 3. Dc circuits and Ohm’s law of measurments
Helina Wolfe
Tannaz Farnoudi and Najah Rouse
Physics 246-205
Professor Joe Renaud
09/23/13
Word count:1453
Abstract:
The aim of this experiment was to understand the relationship between the variables of Ohm’s law and how they are part of an operation of an electric circuit.
Introduction:
This experiment was done in two parts. The first part consisted of understanding how to determine the current, voltage and resistance as part of Ohm’s law. The second part consisted of how to use the variables in an electrical current. Knowing how the variables are used in calculations and electrical currents is important in determining the value of the resistor and how it affects the current in the circuit. A device known as the multimeter is used to find the voltage and current in the circuit. Ohm's principal discovery was that the amount of electric current through a metal conductor in a circuit is directly proportional to the voltage impressed across it, for any given temperature. Ohm expressed his discovery in the form of a simple equation, describing how voltage, current, and resistance interrelate:
V= IR equation (1)
This continuous movement of free electrons through the conductors of a circuit is called a current (I). Current is often referred to in terms of “flow. The force motivating electrons to...

...Lee 1
Kwan Woo Lee
LabReport#1 Measurements in resistive networks and circuit laws laboratory
Abstract:
The purpose of this lab is to verify the Ohm's Law, Kirchhoff's Voltage and Current Laws. As well as the introduction to the voltage division. The Ohm's Law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference across the two points (V = IR). The Kirchhoff's Voltage Law states that the directed sum of the electrical voltage around any closed network is zero. The Kirchhoff's Current Law states that the algebraic sum of currents in a network of conductors meeting at a point is zero. This labreport presents the lab results of 4 different parts of the lab and they provide experimented data, both numerical and visual, that verifies the Ohm's Law, Kirchhoff's Voltage and Current Laws.
Lee 2
Data:
Ohm's Law (part I)
Figure 1.1 Table 1.1 Vs -10V -5V 0V 5V 10V I -3.16mA -1.58mA 0.09mA 1.58mA 3.16mA V -6.86V -3.42V 0.19V 3.42V 6.86V
Current vs. Voltage
10 y = 2.169x - 0.001 voltage (V) 5 0 -2 -5 -10 current (mA) 0 2 4
-4
Graph 1.1 -The plot on the does not go through the origin, but it should. Ideally, when the voltage source is equal to 0V, both the voltage and the current should be 0V and 0mA respectively which will make the plot go through the origin; however, because of the...

...
Experiment 5: RC Circuits
Abstract
The purpose of this lab is to learn and understand RC Circuits. An RC circuit is composed of at least one resistor and at least one capacitor. A capacitor is composed of two plates with either air or an insulator also known as a dielectric between the plates. We do not want the plates to be touching, because then we would only have a conductor. The insulator between the plates is also known as the dialectic, which affect how the capacitor will store charge. In an RC circuit, voltage will flow from the battery to the capacitor and through the resistor. When the capacitor is charging, the voltage across the battery is decreasing until the capacitor is fully charged. When the capacitor is fully charged, then the voltage through the battery is zero. That would also mean that the voltage of the circuit would drop until it is also zero. Now when the capacitor completely discharges, the voltage through the battery increases. We were able to measure the half-time of the charging and discharging of the capacitor by connecting the circuit to the oscilloscope with the signal generator providing the potential for the circuit. The time constant was calculated from the half-time of charging and discharging. The time constant is a measure of the length of time a capacitor took to charge and discharge. We used...

...ZEIT 1206 DEC1 LabReport 1
DC Circuits - Analysis and Design
Alexander Glover, z3422512
Abstract
DC circuit analysis and design, play a massive role in electrical engineering and without the correct application of theory and practise in unison, nothing can be achieved in a true engineering sense. Engineering requires theory to develop and test constraints while also requiring practical application of theory in order to determine tolerance and practical results for industry purposes. The ability to analysis a circuit gives a potential electrical engineer the ability to learn how to problem solve in a theoretical and practical sense which in turn develops industry skills in which will follow them for life, and allow a solid knowledge base for the rest of their career. This report covers the analysis of a DC circuit in order to determine unknown values within a circuit and covers the design process of a DC circuit when specific voltages are required and current and resistors values are unknown.
Introduction
This laboratory focuses predominately on DC circuit analysis and design although, as a result of this, many fundamental aspects of electrical engineering and circuit theory are brought to light. Without the knowledge of circuit theory and fundamental DC circuit analysis and design...

...TO: 1201 Section-002 Instructor
FROM: Engineer Student
DATE: February 16, 2015
RE: Electrical Circuit Project LabReport
The purpose of the Electrical Circuit project was to prepare students with the ability to work with mathematical and engineering calculations to design a breadboard. In order to create a breadboard with an accurate voltage drop between nodes, the resistor combinations and calculations need to be correct.
Calculating the voltage drop between nodes was done through the use of the five nodes provided in class. In order to correctly set up the breadboard, the calculations were used to determine which set of resistors needed to be matched together. Each color on the resistor represents the resistor’s value. The first and second bands represent the first two digits of the resistor value, the third band represents the multiplier, and the fourth band is the tolerance. After adding up the total resistor values, it is significant to match up the resistors to create a total of the calculated result of voltage drops between nodes. A schematic that illustrates my breadboard was done through Microsoft Visio and included in my Electrical Design Package.
The breadboard was tested in class through the use of a voltmeter and a battery. The outcome of this project provides an understanding that the calculations play a significant role in the accuracy of the overall result of success. If the calculations were...

...ELEC 202 LAB 1 REPORT
INTRODUCTION TO LABORATORY INSTRUMENTS AND RESISTIVE
CIRCUITS
Objectives:
The aim of the first experiment is to become familiar with lab instruments, get an idea about
their working structure and how to use them when necessary. In addition to that in the first
part of the experiment our aim is to read color codes of resistors and get idea about how to use
multimeter for resistor measurements. In the second part of the experiment our aim is to see
the operation of function generator and DC voltage source, how to use multimeter to measure
AC and DC voltage and how to use multimeter to measure AC and DC current. After
completing these parts our aim is to see the operation oscilloscope and analyze simple
circuits.
Experimental work;
In the first part of the experiment we read the colors of given resistors. There were 4 resistors
in the kit. Three of them were same because their colors at the right hand side were same an
done of them was different. The color of 3 resistors were orange and other one was red so
when we looked at the color code table our three resistors were 10.000 ohm and other resistor
was 1000 ohm.
After using color table we determined the values of resistors by using multimeter. While
measuring the values of the resistor by multimeter it is important to not to hold it by two
hands since the human body has an effect on it and wrong values can...

...Voltage Divider LabReport
Table Of Contents
1.0 Introduction
The following report consists of test results gathered from the design and construction of a voltage divider. The divider was built with the purpose of reducing the power from 12V to 0V using different combinations of given resistors in a complete circuit. Having a basic understanding of electrical circuits is an essential need even for non-electrical engineers. Mechanical, computer and other engineering disciplines will be utilizing electrical circuits on a daily basis, which makes it important to have this understanding. Through the use of Ohms Law and Kirchhoff’s Law, our team was able to determine theoretical voltages prior to the construction and testing phases. After preforming the tests, it was evident that our calculations were accurate resulting in a successful experiment.
2.0 Background
The main theory used in determining the theoretical voltges was Ohms Law. Ohms Law explains the relation of current, voltage and resistance. (Patrick & Fardo 1999) This is best illustrated using the Ohms Law circle (Figure 1.1) with the variables I (current), V (voltage) and R (resistance). To use the circle properly, cover the unknown variable and perform the function remaining.
For the voltage divider, we were given the current and voltage drops between the the different nodes. (Table 1.2) Using this...