China's Greatest Dynasties and Their Achievements

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China
China’s physical geography influenced the location of its early civilizations. Physical Barriers:
Himalaya Mountains
Gobi Desert
Pacific Ocean
Only about 10% of China is suitable for farming, First civilization settled on the Huang He and Chang Jiang rivers. Huang He River (Yellow River): 2,900 miles long, flowing west to east. Chang Jiang River (Yangtze River): 3,400 miles long, flows across central China and empties into the Yellow Sea. Ancient China had four dynasties:

Shang Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
Qin Dynasty
Han Dynasty
Shang (1750 B.C.E-1045 B.C.E)
At this time China was ruled by a king from the capital city. The royal family was at the top of the Shang Society. Royal tombs were built for the king, Most people were peasants. During this time period they developed “ancestor worship” which is still around today. Zhou (1045 B.C.E-256 B.C.E)

Continued the political system created by the Shang by increased bureaucracy. Instituted the Mandate of Heaven, justification for rule; believed the king was sent from heaven or by the gods. They did NOT see the king as a god though. The king was expected to rule with goodness and treat everyone fair, if he did not the people could overthrow him. Peasants are still most of the population. Filial piety guides family life  the duty of family members to subordinate their needs and wants to those of the males. They learned about irrigation. Confucius (famous philosopher) was born during this dynasty. The creation of Chinese written language happened during this time period. Qin (221 B.C.E- 206 B.C.E)

China fell into many civil wars and the power got passed to the Qin family. Qin Shihungai:
Created a single monetary system
Builds roads
Laid foundations for the great wall of china
Legalism  believed humans were evil by nature and should be ruled harshly •Reorganized the government into a strong central bureaucracy. Han (221 B.C.E-202 B.C.E) overlaps with Qin
Eliminated legalism and...
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