Changes in the family structure
-Nuclear family: Both mother and father reside the home.
1960 – only 90% of kids lived with a single parent.
2006 – Only 25% of kids lived with a single parent. (Main reason for this was divorce)
*Exception to Asian-American families.
-Blended family: Two divorced families/Widowed families. “Brady Bunch” May produce a child together
Half brothers an sisters
-StepFamily: Kids coming together from each family.
-Extended Family: Multi-generation relatives living together Could also include aunts/uncles/cousins
Lower income the higher rate of extended families. People can’t afford to have their own house. Ecconomy is a big factor!
More support – Childcare/Shared expenses/Elder care
1950- 13% of married women with children under the age of 17 working. 1979 – There was only 14%
2002 – There was 50% of mothers working
2006 – 65%
Much more commom for much longer in African-American Households and Mexican-American households.
20 years worth of research
Change in LGBT parenting
Projected from 2 – 8 million gay and lesbian parents.
Parents don’t want to be labeled.
Example: “ She is a lesbian parent”
How do theories explain child psychology?
* Theoriesorganize and give meaning to facts by describing how they fit together and guide future research. * Theory is the backbone of developmental research.
* Different theories provide frames of reference for interpreting facts.
Evaluating theories of development
explain many facts
predict future events
are empirically based
Theories are empirically based (based on observation and experimentantion) Ex: Testing seeks to prove our hypothesis
Ex: Itard and the wild boy of averyon “Victor” (Behavior come from the environment)
Evolutionary in nature
Darwin – Survival of the fittest
Play activities were reflective of survival
Children are born with a lack inhibition
* Limited time to develop language
* Short capacity for memory as infants – helps with language acquisition because children have extreme focus on the language.
Focuses on the causes and adaptive value of behavior.
-Learning occurs rapidly
-leads to own survival
Looks at how adults view infants and vice versa
-All children become attached to their caregivers no matter how they are treated. -positive attachment leads to attachment likelihood of infants survival. Attachments will give cues to child as to how to have relationship in the future.
Unconscious drives and focus develop within the mind of the individual. -not widely used
-Freud – grandfather of psychoanalytic theory.
-influenced by Darwin Newton’s law of Physics. (energy can’t be created nor destroyed)
We all have an internal energy – Result of an evolutionary heritages and he called this energy “Libido”. The Libido is the source of action and sexual desire.
Freud’s Psychosexual Stages
ID = DEVIL – PLEASURE PRINCIPAL
Demands are considered irrational and often don’t match what the environment provides. Example of ID on an Infant: Hunger
They cry, scream, suck their fingers trying to seek immediate gratification.
EGO= YOU – SEEKS TO SATISFY THE IDIN A SOCIALLY ACCEPTABL MANNER – REASON – ACTS OWN REALITY.
SUPEREGO= ANGEL – CONSCIENCE
When the demands of the and superego are disobeyed the superego punishes the individual with fillings of guilt, shame and fear.
FREUD’S DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES
ORAL STAGE (BIRTH – 1 YEAR)
-only the ID is operating
Erogenous zone is the Mouth
ANAL STAGE (1 – 3 YEARS)
-Ego starts to develop in relation to the social world.
-Realit principal kicks in
-Erogenous zone is the anus.
PHALLIC STAGE (3 - 6 YEARS)
-Results of the conflict...