Child Development

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Preoperational stage-

Piaget's second stage, lasting from 2 to 7 years of age, during which time children begin to represent the world with words, images and drawings. In this stage, they also form stable concepts and being to reason. At the same time, their cognitive world is dominated by egocentrism and magical beliefs. In Piaget's theory, reversible mental actions that allow children to do mentally what they formerly did physically. Piaget's first substage of preoperational thought, in which the child gains the ability to mentally represent an object that is not present (occurs roughly between 2 and 4 years of age). Piaget's concept that describes the inability to distinguish between one's own perspective and someone else's perspective. The belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities and are capable of action. Piaget's second substage of preoperational thought, in which children begin to use primitive reasoning and want to know the answer to all sorts of questions (occurs between about 4 and 7 years of age). The focusing of attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others.

Operations-

Symbolic function substage-

Egocentrism-

Animism-

Intuitive though substge-

Centration-

Conservation-

The concept that an objects or substances basic properties stay the same even though its appearance has been altered. Vygitsky's term for the range of tasks that are too difficult for children to achieve alone but can be achieved with the guidance and assistance of adults or more skilled children. In regard to cognitive development, Vygotsky used this term to describe the changing level of support over the course of a teaching session, with the more-skilled person adjusting guidance to for the child's current performance level. An approach that emphasizes the social contexts of learning and the fact that knowledge is mutually built and constructed; Vygotsky's theory is a social constructivist approach. Involves action planning,...
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