Chemistry Vocabulary Chapter 5

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Amplitude - the height of a wave from the origin to a crest, or from the origin to a trough. Atomic emission spectrum – a set of frequencies of electromagnetic waves given off by atoms of an element; consists of a series of fine lines of individual colors. Electromagnetic radiation – a form of energy exhibiting wavelike behavior as it travels through space; can be described by wavelength, frequency, amplitude, and speed. Electromagnetic spectrum – includes all forms of electromagnetic radiation; the types of radiation differ in their frequencies and wavelengths. Frequency – the number of waves that pass a given point per second. Photoelectric effect – a phenomenon in which photoelectrons are emitted from a metals surface when light of a certain frequency shines on the surface. Photon - a particle of electromagnetic radiation with no mass that carries quantum of energy. Planck’s constant – 6.626 x 10 ^-34 J x s. Where j is the symbol for the joules. Quantum – the minimum amount of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom. Wavelength – the shortest distance between equivalent points on a continuous wave; is usually expressed in meters, centimeters, or nanometers. Atomic orbital – a three dimensional region around the nucleus of an atom that describes an electrons probable location. De Broglie equation – predicts that all moving particles have wave characteristics and relates each particles wavelength to its frequency, its mass, and planks constant. Energy sublevel – the energy levels contained within a principle energy level. Ground state – the lowest allowable energy state of an atom. Heisenberg uncertainty principle – states that it is not possible to know precisely both the velocity and the position of a particle at the same time. Principle energy level –the major energy level of an atom. Principle quantum number – assigned by the quantum mechanical model to indicate the relative sizes and energy of atomic orbitals. Quantum mechanical model of the atom – an...
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