Chemistry Study Guide

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Chapter 1
* What is Chemistry?
-it is the study of the composition of substances and the changes they undergo. * What are the 5 branches of chemistry?
* Organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, analytical chemistry, physical chemistry, biochemistry. * What is the difference between a theory and law?
-a theory is a thoroughly tested explanation of why experiments give certain results. A scientific law is a concise statement that summarized the results of a broad spectrum of observations and experiments. * Know how to describe the states of matter in terms of a definite or indefinite volume and shape. -the 3 states of matter are solid, liquid, and gas. A solid is matter that has a definite shape and volume,. A liquid is matter that flows, but it has a fixed volume and takes the shape of its container. A gas is matter that takes shape and volume of its container. * Define matter, substances, mixtures, elements, compounds, homogenous mixture, heterogeneous mixture and solutions. -Matter: anything that takes up space and has mass.

-Substances: a sample of matter having a uniform and definite composition. Elements/Compounds. -Mixtures: a combination of 2 or more substances that are not chemically combined. -Elements: a substance that cannot be changed into a simpler substance under normal laboratory conditions. -Compounds: a substance that can be broken down to simpler substances only by chemical reactions. -Homogenous Mixture: a mixture that is completely uniform in composition. -Heterogeneous Mixture: a reaction carried out with a hetero. Mixture of reactants. * What is a phase?

-a phase is any part of a system with uniform composition and properties. * Difference between chemical and physical change.
-physical change is an alteration of a substance that doesn’t affect its chemical composition unlike chemical changes. * Difference between a chemical and physical properties.
-chemical property is the ability of a substance to undergo chemical reactions and to form new substances while physical properties is the ability of a substance that can be observed/ measured without changing the chemical composition.

* Chemical/Element symbol
-sodiumNa
-potassiumK
-antimonySb
-copperCu
-GoldAu
-silverAg
-ironFe
-leadPb
-mercuryHg
-TinSn
-TungstenW
* What is a chemical reaction and its signs?
-A chemical reaction is when one or more substances change into a new substance Reactat product. Energy change, color change, odor change, formation of gas. * What is law of conservation of Mass?

-In any physical or chemical reaction, mass isn’t created or destroyed. It is conserved.

Chapter 2
* Define and give examples of quantitative/ qualitative. -Qualitative describes the properties of what’s being measured. -Quantitative uses numbers to define what is being measured. -touching a sick persons forehead/ 98.

* What are the definition of accuracy and precision?
-accuracy is if its close to the accepted volume while precise is if several measurements agree w/each other. * Understood scientific notation.
-3.6 x 104=3.6 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10= 36000
* Understand significant figures pg 36.
1. Every nonzero digit in a recorded measurement is significant. The measurements 24.7 m, 0.743 m, 714 m, all express a measure of 3 significant figures. 2. Zeros appearing in front of all nonzero digits are significant. The measurements 7003 m, 40.79 m, and 1.503 m all have four significant figures. 3. Zeros appearing in front of all nonzero digits are not significant. They act as place holders. The measurements 0.0071 m, 0.42 m, and 0.000099 m all have 2 significant figures. Although not significant these particular zeros cannot be arbitrary dropped from the measurement because they show the magnitude of the measurement.

* What is the metric prefixes?
-nano, micro, mili, centi, deci, meter, deca hector, kilo.
* What is the s1 Base unit?...
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