Chemistry Revision Notes

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Chemistry 1 Revision Booklet Unit Chemistry 1 Syllabus
At the beginning of each sub-section, activities are stated which develop candidates. skills, knowledge and understanding of how science works. Details are then given of the substantive contexts in which these skills, knowledge and understanding should be set. It is expected that, where appropriate, teachers will adopt a practical approach, enabling candidates to develop skills in addition to procedural knowledge and understanding. Note that objective test Chemistry 1a examines Section 11.1 . 11.3 and objective test Chemistry 1b examines Sections 11.4 . 11.6. 11.1 How do rocks provide building materials? The exploitation of rocks provides essential building materials. Limestone is a naturally occurring resource that provides a starting point for the manufacture of cement, concrete and glass. Throughout Unit Chemistry 1, candidates should know that atoms are held together in molecules and lattices by chemical bonds, but no detailed knowledge of the types of chemical bonding is required. Candidates should be able to interpret chemical equations in symbol form and should be able to balance equations in terms of numbers of atoms. Candidates should use their skills, knowledge and understanding of how science works: to consider and evaluate the environmental, social and economic effects of exploiting limestone and producing building materials from it to evaluate the developments in using limestone, cement, concrete and glass as building materials, and their advantages and disadvantages over other materials. Their skills, knowledge and understanding of how science works should be set in these substantive contexts: All substances are made of atoms. A substance that is made of only one sort of atom is called an element. There are about 100 different elements. Elements are shown in the periodic table. The groups contain elements with similar properties. Atoms of each element are represented by a chemical symbol, eg O represents an atom of oxygen, Na represents an atom of sodium. Atoms have a small central nucleus around which there are electrons. When elements react, their atoms join with other atoms to form compounds. This involves giving, taking or sharing electrons and the atoms are held together by chemical bonds. (No further knowledge of ions, ionic and covalent bonding is required in this unit.) Atoms and symbols are used to represent and explain what is happening to the substances in chemical reactions. The formula of a compound shows the number and type of atoms that are joined together to make the compound. Chemistry - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2007/8 examination

hij No atoms are lost or made during a chemical reaction so the mass of the products equals the mass of the reactants and we can write balanced equations showing the atoms involved. Limestone, containing the compound calcium carbonate (CaCO3), is quarried and can be used as a building material. 34

Calcium carbonate can be decomposed by heating (thermal decomposition) to make calcium oxide (quicklime) and carbon dioxide. Carbonates of other metals decompose on heating in a similar way. Quicklime (calcium oxide) reacts with water to produce slaked lime (calcium hydroxide). Limestone and its products have many uses, including slaked lime, mortar, cement, concrete and glass. 11.2 How do rocks provide metals and how are metals used? Metals are very useful in our everyday lives. Ores are naturally occurring rocks that provide an economic starting point for the manufacture of metals. Iron ore is used to make iron and steel. Copper can be easily extracted but copper rich ores are becoming scarce. Aluminium and titanium are useful metals but are expensive to produce. Candidates should use their skills, knowledge and understanding of how science works: to consider and evaluate the social, economic and environmental impacts of exploiting metal ores, of using metals and of recycling metals to...
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