Chemistry Bonding Notes and Lewis Dot Structures

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CChemistry Exam #2 Study Guide (10/07/12)

I. Bonding
a. Ionic Bonding
i. Electrons are transferred
ii. Ions are held together by electrostatic force
b. Covalent Bonding
iii. Electrons are somehow shared
iv. Electrons are attracted to nuclei (shared)

II. Electronegativity
c. The ability of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself d. Measured on Pauling Scale
e. Most electronegative: Fluorine. Then Oxygen.
f. Depending on electronegativity of X and Y, there are 3 possibilities: v. X and Y have identical electronegativities (Non Polar) vi. X and Y have dissimilar electronegativities (Polar)- Y is slightly negative; has greater control than slightly positive X vii. X and Y have very different electronegativities (Ionic)- Y is negative; has full control g. Polar Covalent

viii. Size depends on electronegative difference
ix. Arrow points to where electrons are dragged to
x. Dipole Moment measured in Debyes (D)\
1. [Dipole Momenti = Q*r]
xi. Possesses some ionic character
2. The bigger the difference…
a. The more polar the bond
b. The bigger the dipole
c. The more ionic in character

III. Electron Configuration for Ions
h. Atom forms an ion with electron configuration of the closest noble gas xii. True for representative S and P block
xiii. Atom will lose up to three or gain up to three electrons 3. For D-block elements
d. Outer S electrons lost before outer D electrons 4. For P-block elements
e. Outer P lost before the outer S electrons, which are lost before outer D

IV. Ionic Radii
i. Size descriptions based on charge
xiv. Positive ions are always smaller than the parent atom xv. Negative ions are...
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