Element: Simplest form of matter to have unique chemical properties. Atom: The smallest particles with unique chemical identities. Nucleus: Center of an atom (composed of protons and neutrons). Proton: Have a single positive charge (+1). Neutron: Have no charge.
Electron: Tiny particles with a single negative charge and very low mass (-1)/determines chemical bonding properties of an atom. Atomic Number: Number of protons in the nucleus.
Atomic Mass: Approximate number of protons and neutrons equal to total. Isotope: Atoms of same element that very in numbers of neutrons. Electron Shells: Energy levels of electrons.
Ions: Charged particles with unequal number of protons and neutrons. Cations: Positively charged ions.
Anions: Negatively charged ions.
Covalent Bond: The sharing of (single, double) a pair of electrons. Ionic Bond: The attraction of a cation to an anion (ex. Na+ and Cl-). Hydrogen Bond: Weak attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom (covalently bonded to an oxygen or nitrogen atom) in one molecule and a slightly negative ___ atom in another. Van der Waals forces: Weak, brief attractions between non-polar molecules (1% strong as covalent bond) Molecule: Chemical particles composed of two or more atoms united by a chemical bond. Polar Covalent Molecule: One part of the molecule is more positive while the other side is more negative. Non-polar Covalent Molecule: Shared electrons send approximately equal time around each nucleus (strongest of all chemical bonds). Compound: Molecules composed of two or more molecules.
Molecular Formula: Identifies a molecule’s constituent elements and show how many atoms of each are present (ex. C2H6O). Structural Formula: Shows the location of each atom.
Mixture: Consists of substances that are physically blended but not chemically combined. Solvency: Ability to dissolve other chemicals.
Hydrophilic: Molecules that attract water of dissolve in it because of their polar nature. Hydrophobic: Molecules that do not attract water or dissolve in it because of their non-polar nature; such molecules tend to dissolve in lipids and other non-polar solvents. Electrolyte: A salt that ionizes in water and produces a solution that conducts electricity; any ion that results from the dissociation of such salts as sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and bicarbonates. Free Radical: A particle derived from an atom or molecule, having an unpaired electron that makes it highly reactive and destructive to cells; produced by intrinsic processes such as aerobic respiration and by agents such as chemicals and ionizing radiation. Molecular Weight: The sum of the atomic weights of atoms.
Adhesion: The tendency of one substance to cling to another. Cohesion: The tendency of molecules of the same substance to cling to each other. Acid: Any proton donor, a molecule that releases a proton (H+) in water. ￼Base: A proton acceptor.
Salt: Water ionizes it.
pH: A measure derived from the molarity of H+/ scale from 1(acidic)-13(basic)/7 is neutral. Buffer: Chemical solutions that resist changes in pH.
Organic: From carbon
Carbohydrate: Hydrophilic macromolecules made of C, H, and O/ sacchar- and suffix -ose means sugar/ sweet. Dehydration Synthesis (Condensation): A hydroxyl (-OH) group is removed from one monomer and a hydrogen (-H) from another, producing water as a by-product. Hydrolysis: Opposite of dehydration synthesis/water molecules ionize into OH- and H+ (ex. Digestion). Monosaccharide: Glucose (blood sugar), galactose, fructose (isomers of each other). Disaccharide: 2 monosaccharides [ex. Sucrose (glucose+fructose), lactose (glucose+galactose), maltose (glucose+glucose). Polysaccharide: Long chains of monosaccharides (at least 50). Lipids: Hydrophobic organic molecules (C, H, O)
Fatty Acids: A chain of 4 to 24 carbon atoms with a carboxyl group at one end and a methyl group at the other. Triglyceride: A molecule consisting of three fatty acids covalently bonded to a three carbon...
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