Characteristics of Organisms

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Chapter 1: Classification and Characteristics of Living Organisms Organisms - An individual living thing, such as an animal or a plant, is called an organism. There are seven characteristics of living organisms –

Nutrition
Nutrition is the process by which organisms obtain energy and raw materials from nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates and fats for growth and repair. Photosynthesis is the process of nourishment of green plants. Digestion is the process of nourishment of green plants.

Respiration
Respiration is the process of the breakdown of nutrients (glucose) to release energy. It occurs in cells of the organism
It is of 2 types- Anaerobic (No Oxygen) and Aerobic (Oxygen) Glucose + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy (34-36 ATP + heat)

Movement
Movement is the change of position of an organism to change positions or move pats of them. Plants too move in various different ways.
The movement may be so slow that it is very difficult to see.

Growth
Growth is the permanent increase in size and the dry mass of the organism. Plants keep on growing for their whole lives.
Animals stop growing at a certain age.
Excretion
Excretion is the process of the removal of the metabolic waste from the body. Metabolism is the term given to the entire chemical reactions taking place in the body. Plants store this waste in their leaves so that it is removed when they fall off.

Sensitivity
Sensitivity is the response of a change in the environment of the organism. Such a change is called a Stimulus.

Reproduction
It is the process by which an organism produces new individuals. Asexual reproduction is when only one parent is involved.
Sexual reproduction is where two parents are involved.

The classification of organisms is called Taxonomy

Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

Invertebrates
Nematodes
Thread-like Bodies
No Segments
Live in Soil and water
Some are parasitical
They are bilaterally symmetrical

Annelids
Soft Bodies
Segmented
Chaetae or bristles

Molluscs
Soft Bodies
Unsegmented
Muscular foot
Shells
Arthropods
Crustaceans
Cephalothorax and abdomen
Two pairs of Antennae
Compound Eyes
Gills
Live in Water
Exoskeleton
5-20 pairs of legs

Myriapods
Many segments
Centipedes are Carnivores, fast and have one pair of legs on each segment. Millipedes are Herbivores, slow and have two pairs of legs on each segment.

Insects

Head, Thorax and Abdomen
Three pairs of legs
Two pairs of wings.
One pair of Antennae
Compound eyes
Spiracles
Can Fly
Cuticle

Arachnids
Cephalothorax and Abdomen
Four pairs of legs
No wings
Simple eyes

Vertebrates
Fish
Streamlined Body
Fins
Gills
Eyes
Scales
2 Chambered Heart

Amphibians
Smooth and Moist Skin
External Fertilisation
Adults use lungs
Can also breathe through skin
Three Chambered Heart
Reptiles
Dry and Scaly Skin
Internal fertilisation
Oviparous
Lungs
Three except for croc which has 4

Birds
Feathers
Wings
Internal fertilisation
Oviparous
Lungs
Four Chambered Heart

Mammals
Hair or Fur
Internal development and fertilisation
Mammary glands
Lungs
Four Chambered Heart

Microbes
Bacteria
Simple Cell Structure
Spherical or Rod Shaped
Surrounded by Cell Walls
Contain additional DNA loops called Plasmids
No chloroplasts or mitochondria
Have Flagellum
Create Endospores to survive in Harsh Conditions.

Fungi
Most are Multicellular
Cell wall made of Chitin
No Chlorophyll
Main body is MYCELIUM
Have HYPHAE
Spores
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