Cognition: All mental activities associated with processing understanding and communicating Concept: A mental grouping of similar object events and people Prototype: mental imagine that incorporate all the features that we associate with the concept How do we solve problems?
Algorithms: Step by step procedure that guarantees a solution. How does it work? Heuristics: Quicker, more efficient but more prone to error. “Rule of Thumb” Strategy Insight: When you have a sudden flash of inspiration. Johnny Appleton and construction workers. Obstacles to Problem Solving
Confirmation Bias: When we search for information that confirms our beliefs Fixation: Inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective Functional Fixedness: When we perceive the function of object as fixed and unchanging. Thinking is also affected by
Overconfidence: Our tendency to overestimate the accuracy of our knowledge and judgment Framing: The way an issue is presented
Belief Perseverance: Our Inclination to hold on to over belifeinspite of evidence that contradicts them. Language
Our spoken written, or gestured words and the way we combine them. How do we acquire it?
Babble at 4 months
Distinct babbling at 10 months
1 year 1 word sentence
Two year say two word sentences.
Girls babble before boys, and say sentence before boys too and follows into Elementary school.
Three Theories of Language Development
Skinner: believes we talk because of Association. Imitation, Reinforcement Chomsky: believes we are pre-wired for language with a LAD (Language Acquisition Device) Whorf: Linguistic Determinism different languages impose difference realities Animal Intelligence
Do animals think?
They can solve problems and make tools
Do animals have language?
They can learn human sign language and communicate with each other. Hunger
Blood sugar drops
Release of hormone orexin
Hunger may affect