Chapter 9-11

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Chapter 9- Thinking and Language:

9.1- what is Cognition, and what are the functions of concepts:

Cognition refers to all the mental activities acknowledged with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communication. We form most concepts about prototypes or best examples of a category.

9.2- what cognitive strategies assist our problem solving, and what obstacles hinder it?

An algorithm is a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees a solution to the problem. A heuristic is a simpler strategy that is usually faster but has more errors. Insight is not a problem based solution but rather a sudden flash to solve a problem.

9.3- what is intuition and how can the availability heuristic; overconfidence, belief perseverance and framing influence our decisions and judgments?

Intuition is the effortless immediate automatic feeling or thoughts we often use instead of systematic reasoning. Overconfidence can lead us to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs. Belief preference may cause you to cling to a belief. Framing is the way a question is worded or altered.

9.4- how do smart thinkers use intuition?

Smart thinkers welcome their intuitions but when making complex decisions they gather as much information as possible and then take time to let their two track mind process the information.

Thinking:

9.5- what are the structural components of language?

Phonemes are languages basic units of sound. Morphemes are the elementary units of meaning. Grammar is the systems rules that enable us to communicate.

9.6- what are the milestones in language to develop?

Language takes time to develop. At the age of 4 months, infants babble, making sounds found in language. At about 10 months their babbling contains sounds found in your household language. Around 12 months children speak in single words. This one word stage evolves to a two-word stage (telegraphic.)

9.7- how do we acquire language?

We acquire language thought learning as our biology and experiences interact.

9.8- what brain areas are involved in language and processing speech?

Broca’s area, a region of the frontal lobe that controls language expression. Wernicke’s area in the left temporal lobe that controls language reception.

9.9- what is the relationship between language and thinking, and what is the value of thinking in images?

Although Benjamin Lee Whorf’s linguistic determination hypothesis suggested that language determines though, it is more accurate to say that language influences thought.

Chapter 10- Intelligence:

10.1- how is intelligence defined?

Intelligence is mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations. Intelligence tests try to assess these qualities.

10.2- what are the arguments for and against considering intelligence as one general mental ability?

We have one general intelligence. He helped develop factor analysis, a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related mental abilities.

10.3- how does Gardner’s and Sternberg’s theories of multiple intelligences differ?
Savant syndrome seems to support Gardner’s view that we have multiple intelligences. He proposed 8 multiple intelligence: linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal, and naturalist. Sternberg theory proposes 3 intelligences: analytical, creative, and practical.

10.4-what is creativity and what fosters it?

Creativity is the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas, correlates somewhat with intelligence, but beyond IQ score of 120. Sternberg has proposed that creativity has 5 components: expertise, imaginative thinking skills; adventurous personality, interstice motivation, and a creative environment.

10.5- what are four components of emotional intelligence?

Emotional intelligence, which is an aspect of social intelligence, is the ability to...
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