Chapter 8 Outline - National Experience

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Chapter 8 Outline
Nationalism and Economic Expansion

The Triumph of Neo-Federalism
The American System
▪ Madison was a nationalistic President. Wanted strong military, strong national bank, federal taxes, and other internal improvements. ▪ Clay labeled this the “American System”—protective tariff as well asother things combined to stimulate agriculture and manufacturing

The Tariff of 1816
▪ In the first post-war-of-1812 Congress—protectionists were industrials and farmers who would benefit, versus most of South ▪ Tariff of 1816 passed once Britain started selling cheap goods to America—attempt to ruin the American economy

The Second Bank of the United States
▪ 1st bank left its dealings to partially hectic state-chartered banks with various currencies; the feds did not possess ample financial machinery ▪ 1816: Second Bank passed in Congress- it was quite similar to the last one. ▪Functions: market federal securities, depository for federal funds, regulate currency, sound currency ▪ It needed be run correctly

Internal Improvements
▪ Madison authorized continual building of National Road ▪ States tried to pass a bill giving states $1.5 million for internal improvements, Madison vetoed it, and passed the buck to the states

The Era of Good Feelings
▪ Monroe succeeded Madison and was easily reelected ▪ Federalist Party disbanded – kickage of the bucket ▪ Monroe was a heartening President
▪ Country in a good mood –even New England (everyone loved this dude) ▪ This time period was labeled: “The Era of Good Feelings”

John Marshall and the Supreme Court
Marshall’s Role
▪ John Marshall, a fervent nationalist, was appointed to Chief Justice

Judicial Review
▪ Believed Supreme Court held the power to act on the constitutionality of laws passed by Congress and the states ▪ Marbury vs. Madison established this precedent even though of little importance itself—used frequently in the future

National Supremacy
▪ Numerous cases where Supreme Court trumped state courts ▪ Gibbons vs. Ogden: (Supreme Court over state laws) rejected law allowing monopoly for steamboat Hudson travel and came close to saying Congress’ power to regulate commerce is absolute ▪ McCulloch vs. Maryland tested the constitutionality of 2nd Bank of US ▪ Marshall ruled the 2nd national bank was necessary and proper

Sanctity of Contracts
▪ Fletcher vs. Peck: about whether grant to Yazoo Co. being overturn is okay, and ruled that since a contract, could not be taken away ▪ Dartmouth College vs. Woodward: New Hampshire wanted to revise Dartmouth’s charter to make it a state college, and Dartmouth took them to court – Marshall ruled in favor of Dartmouth

The Monroe Doctrine
Revolutions in Latin America
▪ Spanish and Latin American colonies revolted after they went through their own period of salutary neglect - Europe preoccupied with Napoleon ▪Many in US admired the spirit of revolution that they felt not too long ago ▪In 1822, Latin Colonies recognized as independent by America

The Fear of Foreign Intervention
▪ Bold step for America to recognize them—Europe seemed united against preserving the status quo, but not much chance would intervene without British support ▪ Canning from Britain asked Monroe to make joint statement of their independence, but it would look like US was in the background, so we decided president would say American policy

The American Response
▪ The Monroe Doctrine:
1. US was not interested in European internal affairs or their...
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